Vegetable cropping systems in Southern Benin: cultivated plant diversity, agricultural practices and implications for better production

Volume07-2019
Advances in Agricultural Science 07 (2019), 02: 01-13

Vegetable cropping systems in Southern Benin: cultivated plant diversity, agricultural practices and implications for better production

Anicet G. Dassou 1, Naéssé Adjahossou 1, Cyrille Tchakpa 1, 2, Sèna Vodouhè 1 and Alexandre Dansi 1 

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Genetic Resources and Plant and Animal Breeding; National University of Sciences, Technologies, Engineering and Mathematics, BP: 14 Dassa, Benin.
Laboratory Pierre Pagney, Climate, Water, Ecosystem and Development, FASHS, UAC, Benin.

ABSTRACT

In the context of urban agriculture, cropping vegetables constitute an important economic activity for farmers and food source for a population. Few studies have investigated in how these systems are organized. The objective of this study is to determine the diversity of vegetables cultivated in south of Benin and to assess the structure of the production systems in terms of soil fertilization and pest management. In the three most important vegetable producing zones (Cotonou, Seme, Grand-Popo), in southern Benin, we surveyed vegetable farmers. The results showed 26 vegetable species in producing systems. Vegetable producing sites, sociolinguistic groups and education of farmers didn’t influence the vegetable diversity but influenced the density of vegetable species. The majority of vegetable farmers (45%) did not receive training on vegetable agricultural practices. Some farmers were trained by agricultural trainers (18%) and neighboring farmers on the sites of vegetable production by their colleagues (5% at Seme and 5% at Houeyiho). Capsicum amum, Solanum macrocarpon, Allium cepa, Solanum licopersicum were the main cultivated plants with the highest cropped surfaces. These cropped plants were followed by the Lactuca sativa and Daucus carota. The aromatic plants were lowest cropped in these vegetable cropping systems. Vegetable farmers used mainly organic fertilizers and few mineral fertilizers. Pest management remains a challenge and pesticides were used on 80% chemical products. It is necessary to train the vegetable farmers on innovate pest management using few chemical pesticides.

KeywordsFertilizersPest managementUrban agricultureVegetables


How to Cite: Dassou, A., Adjahossou, N., Tchakpa, C., Vodouhe, S., & Dansi, A. (2018). Vegetable cropping systems in Southern Benin: cultivated plant diversity, agricultural practices and implications for better production. Advances in Agricultural Science7(2), 01-13.   

Introduction

In Africa, peri-urban agriculture is a very important source of income and food for disadvantaged urban dwellers (Moustier and Pagès, 1997). In Benin, vegetable cropping appears today as one of the main components of urban and peri-urban agriculture and plays an important social and economic role in the people life (Kakai et al., 2010). It employs about 4% of the working population and produces about 15% of the national economic value (RNIB, 2008). According to Singbo et al. (2008), vegetable markets meet the food needs and preferences of urban populations. For this purpose, various plants are cultivated and their diversity depends on production area. The analysis of the distribution of producers by type of speculation produced by Houngue and Kindomihou, (2009) clearly shows a diversity of crops that they associate with differnces in consumer preferences, prices and seasonality of products.

Vegetable cropping is often an informal activity, generating income and employment, practiced by vulnerable sections of urban and peri-urban areas (Lachance 1999; Moustier and Pages, 1997). Vegetables and especially leafy vegetables have played an important role in this regime in southern Benin (Agossou et al. 2001). Indeed, in vegetable gardening, leafy vegetables rank second in southern Benin after tomatoes (Colin et Heyd, 1991). Among vegetable crops grown in Benin, leafy vegetables are the most widely consumed. Producers of these crops often face several challenges, including land management, pest management and soil fertilization. In this sector of activities, these constraints remain major despite multiple efforts by research institutions and the government to improve agricultural practices of farmers to increase yield and sustainability of fields.

Each producer defines a way of managing soil fertility and a policy to control crop pests according to his capacity. In southern Benin, Cotonou, Sèmè-Kpodji and Grand-Popo are the most prominent municipalities in which vegetable crops are produced. In these vegetable production zones, farmers us both chemical and organic fertilizers. As the fertilizer uses, the chemical and organic pesticides are also used for the pest management in the vegetable producing systems (James et al., 2010). Many of these products are used for the integrated pest management in the vegetable producing systems. Both soil and pest management are important to improve the performance of vegetable producing systems.

Using pesticides by small farmers has become systematic in order to optimize the yield of vegetable crops. But unlike cotton farmers, vegetable producers do not benefit from supervision or continuous training. In southern Benin, they bought pesticides on local markets minimizing their toxicity or the way to use (Ahouangninou et al. 2011). In this case, some chemical products continue to be used by vegetable producers polluting the environment. It is important to know these products and see how to regulate them.

Studies on the diversity of cultivated plants in vegetable cropping systems are scarce, or limited to a production site or a locality. The objective of this study is to characterize the cultivated plant diversity, pest management and soil fertilization of vegetable cropping systems in southern Benin. Specifically, the present study aims to: i) determine the diversity of cultivated plants in vegetable producing systems in South Benin; ii) understand how farmer’s sociodemographic characteristics influence the vegetable diversity and iii) determine the type of products (organic or chemical) used for soil fertilization and pest management in these producing systems.

 

Material and methods

Study sites

The study was carried out in Cotonou, Grand-Popo, and Seme, three big urban zones where vegetables are highly grown in southern Benin. A part of vegetable producing sites in Cotonou (Houeyiho, Fidjrossè, and airport) have acid sandy soils which are chemically poor. While these vegetable producing sites (Grand Popo and Seme) have salted alluvial soils which are too chemically poor. In the south of Benin, the climate is subequatorial type (ASECNA, 2002) with 4 seasons (2 rainy seasons and 2 dry seasons). The south of Benin is warm, humid agroecological zone with annual rainfall varying from 1100 to 1400 mm/year (ADAM and BOKO, 1993) andannual temperature ranges from 26 to 28°c (Adamou, 2005).

 

Figure 1. Diagram of vegetable farmer ethnic groups in Southern Benin.

Figure 1. Diagram of vegetable farmer ethnic groups in Southern Benin.

 

Figure 2. Diagram of vegetable farmers trained by different organizations; Regional Action Centers for Rural Development  (CARDER), Songhai center, Faculty of agronomic sciences of University of Abomey-calavi (FSA-UAC), University GASA-Formation, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Prefecture, Non-Government Organization NGOs, Support project for professional training in Benin (AFPB), Household Solid Waste Management Project (PGDSM), International fertilizer development center (IFDC), International Koberside Technical Agricultural Private College (CPETAKI), Bangladesh Agricultural and Disaster Insurance Programme (BADIP-Lokossa).

Figure 2. Diagram of vegetable farmers trained by different organizations; Regional Action Centers for Rural Development  (CARDER), Songhai center, Faculty of agronomic sciences of University of Abomey-calavi (FSA-UAC), University GASA-Formation, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Prefecture, Non-Government Organization NGOs, Support project for professional training in Benin (AFPB), Household Solid Waste Management Project (PGDSM), International fertilizer development center (IFDC), International Koberside Technical Agricultural Private College (CPETAKI), Bangladesh Agricultural and Disaster Insurance Programme (BADIP-Lokossa).

 

Methodology

To assess vegetable diversity, data were collected from the vegetable producing sites across 3 selected areas in south of Benin. Interviews were carried out on 14 vegetable farmers in Seme, 28 vegetable farmers in Cotonou and 40 vegetable farmers in Grand-Popo. Data were collected in spring 2016 through the use of tools and methods of the participatory research approach, such as direct observation, individual interviews and field visits (Dansi et al., 2013). Information on farm location and farmer ethnicity was documented withdiversity and density of cultivated vegetables, performance of the vegetable producing, soil fertilization, pest management and their use frequencies. Pest management and soil fertilization methods were also documented using the spontaneous reaction evaluation method. Responses were on the all types of products used by farmers to control pests and manage the soil fertilization. They described also how to use the products and their use frequencies. For each parameter studied, responses are also evaluated by each farmer using 2 scores: 0 and 1. Score 1 is assigned when the product (organic or chemical) is used to control pests or to fertilize the soils. If not, the score is 0 (Gbedolo et al., 2018).

Data analysis

The vegetable density per subplot was determined and the vegetable diversity was assessed with the Shannon index (Shannon, 1948), which was calculated with the diversity function of the Vegan package version (Oksanen and O’Hara, 2013). We analyzed the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, matrimonial situation…) characteristics, education (received trainings) and vegetable producing sites on the vegetable diversity and the density of each vegetable species using Poisson Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Vegetable diversity and density were evaluated by count of plants of cultivated species allowing us to use Poisson Generalized Linear Models for analyses. All the analyses were calculated in the R software (R Development Core Team, 2014).

Results

Sociodemographic characteristics of vegetable farmers in South Benin

Women were poorly represented among the vegetable farmers in the three areas surveyed but more commonly participated in vegetation cropping at Grand-Popo and Seme. Amongst vegetable farmers in the three vegetable producing zones, there were more married farmers than single farmers (Table 1). The majority vegetable farmers in Southern Benin were Mina (39%) and Fon (22%) followed by Adja (9%) and Sahoue (9%) ethnic groups (Figure 1). The majority of vegetable farmers (45%) did not have training on the cultural practices of vegetable production systems. Some were trained by the agricultural trainers (18%) and others farmers on the sites of vegetable production (5% at Seme and 5% at Houeyiho). Others farmers were trained through national and international institutions such as Regional Action Centers for Rural Development  (CARDER), Songhai center, Faculty of agronomic sciences of University of Abomey-calavi (FSA-UAC), University GASA-Formation, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Prefecture, Non-Government Organization NGOs, Support project for professional training in Benin (AFPB), Household Solid Waste Management Project (PGDSM), International fertilizer development center (IFDC), International Koberside Technical Agricultural Private College (CPETAKI), Bangladesh Agricultural and Disaster Insurance Programme (BADIP-Lokossa) (Figure 2).

 

Influence of sociodemographic parameters on the cultivated plant diversity in vegetable producing systems

We identified 26 cultivated plants in vegetable producing systems. Capsicum annum (18.07% of cultivated surfaces), Allium cepa (18.95% of cultivated surfaces), Solanum lycopersicum (15.95% of cultivated surfaces) and Solanum macrocarpon (12.66% of cultivated surfaces) were

Figure 3. Mean density of major vegetable cultivated per plot and per farmer. Y-axis: major cultivated plant species. X-axis: Average of cultivated plant density per subplot (density > 10 cultivated plants per subplot).

Figure 3. Mean density of major vegetable cultivated per plot and per farmer. Y-axis: major cultivated plant species. X-axis: Average of cultivated plant density per subplot (density > 10 cultivated plants per subplot).

 

Figure 4. Mean density of minor vegetable cultivated per plot and per farmer. Y-axis: minor cultivated plant species. X-axis: Average of cultivated plant density per subplot (density < 10 cultivated plants per subplot).

Figure 4. Mean density of minor vegetable cultivated per plot and per farmer. Y-axis: minor cultivated plant species. X-axis: Average of cultivated plant density per subplot (density < 10 cultivated plants per subplot).

 

Table 1. Sociodemographic parameters of vegetable farmers at South Benin

Sociodemograghic parameters Grand-Popo Cotonou Seme
Sex Male 34 26 6
Female 7 1 6
Matrimonial situation Divorced 1 0 0
Single 7 9 1
Married 33 18 11

 

Table 2. Cultivated plant diversity and their mean cropped surfaces by farmer

Vegetables Varieties Scientific names Mean cropped surfaces (m2)
1 lettuce Madrilène, Batavia, Hybride, bon jardinier Lactuca sativa 146.525
2 cuncumber Hybride, Corncette, Nadinie, Sadina, Cornicha Cucumis sativus 139.4375
3 hotpepper Hybride, long Capsicum annum 759.5125
4 celery Hybride Apium graveolens 2.5
5 parsley Salvago frisé Petroselinum crispum 7.675
6 coriander Hybride Coriandrum sativum 8.6875
7 rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis 2.5
8 sauge Salvia officinalis 1.3125
9 amaranth Hybride Amaranthus sp 95.7875
10 solanum macrocarpon Hybride Solanum macrocarpon 532.375
11 vernonia Hybride Verninia sp 32.275
12 cabbage Hybride Brassica oleracea 40.55
13 bellpepper Hybride Brassica oleracea 27.1875
14 carott Hybride, Sezan cross, Touchon hybride, America Daucus carota 763.7125
15 beet Beta vulgaris 10.75
16 onion Hybride, Vert, Simple, Echalotte, Prema Allium cepa 796.7875
17 chiayo Ocimum gratissimum 137.9125
18 tomato Hybride Solanum lycopersicum 669.6
19 citronella Hybride  Cymbopogon sp 7.125
20 mint Vert poivré  Mentha sp 2.0625
21 oseille Rumex sp 9
22 agbegbe No identified 3
23 basil Hybride Ocimum basilicum 0.55
24 dill Anethum graveolens 0.45
25 corchorus Corchorus spp. 3
26 asrangbe No identified 2.25

 

the main cultivated plants with the highest cropped surfaces (> 500 m2; Figure 3). The aromatic plants were lowest cropped in these vegetable cropping systems (Table 2; Figure 4 and 5). The cultivated plant diversity was highest on Fidjrossè sites followed respectively by Grand-Popo, Cocotiers,

Table 3. Effect of sites, sociolinguistic groups and education on the densities of cultivated plants in vegetable cropping systems

Sites Sociolinguistic groups Education
Vegetables Df Pr Df Pr Df Pr
lettuce 14 <0.0001 14 <0.0001 20  0.2401
cucumber 14 <0.0001 14 0.1059 20 0.3191
hotpepper 14 <0.0001 14 <0.0001 20 0.01166
celery 14 <0.0001 14 0.6538 20 1
parsley 14 <0.0001 14 <0.0001 20 0.4167
coriander 14 0.02027 14 0.7432 20 0.5152
rosemary 14 1 14 1 20 1
sauge 14 1 14 1 20 1
amaranth 14 <0.0001 14 0.00054 20 0.2472
solanum macrocarpon 14  0.8394 14  0.5555 20 <0.0001
vernonia 14 <0.0001 14 0.2378 20 0.6019
cabbage 14 <0.0001 14 0.5171 20  0.2673
bellpepper 14 <0.0001 14 0.01005 20  0.8328
carott 14 0.8079 14 0.7036 20 0.01851
beet 14 0.3112 14 0.7867 20 0.1227
onion 14 <0.0001 14 0.7455 20 0.01308
ocimum 14 <0.0001 14 0.01256 20 0.00011
tomato 14 <0.0001 14 0.09162 20 0.06725
citronella 14 <0.0001 14 0.00046 20 0.01502
mint 14 0.2289 14 0.00292 20 0.9316
oseille 14 <0.0001 14 0.9993 20 0.9983
agbegbe 14 <0.0001 14 0.8677 20 0.0001
basilic 14 0.5896 14 0.0573 20 0.9933
dill 14  0.01792 14 0.04286 20 0.8657
corchorus 14  0.6833 14 0.9727 20 <0.0001
asrangbe 14  0.007544 14 0.9948 20 <0.0001

 

Table 4. Utilities of the fertilizers

Fertlizers Use Utilities
Urea 15 small square per kg Growth of the vegetables, increases the leaves green color
Superglo 15 small square per kg Growth of the vegetables, increases the leaves green color
NPK 15 small square per kg Facilitate the growth and development of the vegetables, facilitate the development of the flowers
Dungs 15 small square per kg Facilitate the growth and development of the vegetables
Compost 1 small square per 50kg Facilitate the growth and development of the vegetables
Cow pie 1 small square per 50kg Facilitate the growth and development of the vegetables
Ammoniac 15 small square per kg Increase the nitrogen dose in the soil for the growth and development of the vegetables

 

Figure 5. Dendrogram grouping cultivated plants according to their densities. Group G1: cultivated plant species with high densities, Group G2: cultivated plant species with mean densities, Group G3: cultivated plant species with low densities.

Figure 5. Dendrogram grouping cultivated plants according to their densities. Group G1: cultivated plant species with high densities, Group G2: cultivated plant species with mean densities, Group G3: cultivated plant species with low densities.

 

Aeroport, Atingangomey, Houeyiho, Sèmè, Zevilitidji and Nicouecondji 5 (Figure 6). Farmer’s age (Df=1; P=0.796), gender (Df=1; P=0.26), matrimonial status (Df=1; P=0.26), education (Df=20; P=0.41) and vegetable producing sites (Df=14; P=0.22) did not have effect on cultivated plant diversity. But vegetable producing sites, farmer sociolinguistic groups and farmer education had significant effects on the density of many cultivated plants species (Table 3).

Importance of fertilizers in the growth and development of plants and pest management in vegetable producing systems

Vegetable farmers used fertilizers including urea, dung, compost and superglo to facilitate growth and development of the leaves. Although, these fertilizers facilitate the growth and development of vegetables, farmers also used synthetic Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium (NPK) mixtures. . Others vegetable farmers used the cow-pie and ammoniac

Figure 6. Cultivated plant diversity of each site of vegetable production

Figure 6. Cultivated plant diversity of each site of vegetable production

 

Table 5. Efficiency of pesticides

Pesticides Target pests Nature of the pesticides Efficiency
Lambda borers, mites, locusts, nematodes, catapillars Chemical High
Topxine rots, rusts, caterpillars, cabbage butterflies Chemical High
Neem mites, termites, caterpillars Biopesticide Mean
Lamdacal nematodes, locusts, worms Chemical High
Lazer caterpillars Chemical High
Acarus mites Chemical High
Ashes mites Biopesticide Mean
Simplifox locusts Chemical High
Cypercal caterpillars Chemical High
Pyrifox locusts, mites, caterpillars Chemical High
Caterpillar caterpillars, locusts Chemical High
Enacide nematodes Chemical High
Pacha mites, worms Chemical High
Sintex worms Chemical High
Potach locusts, mites, caterpillars Biopesticide Mean
Durban Worms, locusts Chemical High
Montaz Worms Chemical High
Madazine Worms, locusts Chemical High
Megazine Worms, locusts Chemical High
Bendazine Worms Chemical High
Coldazine Worms Chemical High

 

to improve soil structure and nitrogen levels (Table 4). Concerning the plant protection, the vegetable farmers used 22 pesticides from which 2 alone are biological pesticides. Amongst the pesticides used, 90% were chemical pesticides (Table 5).

 

Discussion

Men and woman participated in vegetable farming, however, their roles were often separated.  Women were more likely responsible for shipping sale of goods while men grew the vegetables and maintained the fields.  (Adetonah et al., 2010). Ours results showed that 45% of the vegetable farmers were not trained on the vegetable cultural practices. Few vegetable farmers were trained by agricultural trainers from national and international institutions even though trainings improve farmer’s knowledge and skills on agricultural practices including pest management (Adekambi et al., 2010). There are a positive significant correlation between trainings received by the vegetable farmers and vegetable species such as Solanum macrocarpon, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon sp., Capsicum annum, Allium cepa and Daucus carota (Table 3). The farmers trained on the agricultural practices managed well their producing systems. Inversely, the regular lack of trainings of vegetable farmers can lead to low vegetable production (Williamson et al., 2008).

In this study, we determined a high vegetable diversity on different sites of production. This diversity was dominated by exotic crops and few local crops were cultivated on the sites of vegetable producing. We found that the sites had significant effects on vegetable species density showing the farmer’s preference for the high production of vegetable species such as the lettuce which in Cotonou and tomatoes and onion in Grand-Popo. Cotonou was representative of vegetatble diversity across Benin (Lund et al., 2010; Sathe et al., 2007). Farmer’s sociolinguistic groups had significant effects on vegetable species showing that Fon, Mina and Sahoue sociolinguistic groups were more frequently farming vegetables than other sociolinguistic groups.

Many fertilizers were used by the vegetable farmers to grow and develop the plants. Over the 7 fertilizers identified in the vegetable producing systems in Southern Benin, 6 organic fertilizers were used. Organic fertilizers were the most used by the vegetable farmers because they are less expensive, readily available and efficient. The proper use of organic fertilizer can reduce soil and water pollution in vegetable producing systems and improve vegetable production (Pretty et al., 2011). In the vegetable producing, we identified 21 pesticides that were used for pest control. The majority of pesticides used were chemical products which could pollute the environment.

As implications, two aspects can be addressed in this study. First, the vegetables cultivated in southern Benin are mostly exotic. This great diversity of cultivated plants has very few local crops including local traditional vegetables. It is important to promote local vegetables and urge farmers to produce them in order to increase the diversity of crops to guard against disease and pest outbreaks. Local traditional vegetables are very rich in nutritional and dietary compositions and their production on vegetable producing sites would improve the food security of populations. Native species are also suited to the local climate and soil conditions, thus requiring less fertilizer. The use of chemicals in vegetable producing systems is pervasive with potential environmental harm to soil and water resources. Adverse effects on human health have been documented worldwide and should be a call to local farmers and the government to train farmers on new techniques for pest management and soil fertilization and regulate potential harmful products.

 

Acknowledgments

We thank vegetable farmers in Southern Benin who unconditionally accepted to respond to interviews and to make available their fields for observations.

 

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Appendix 1

Table 1. Density per small square of cultivated plants on the vegetable sites in south of Benin

Vegetables aeroport atingangomey ayiguinnou cocotiers fidjrosse ganhonou gpopo houeyiho nicouecondji plage seme zevilitidji zogbedji
lettuce 105 40 28 200 120 0 105 118 0 73 110 0 0
cucumber 21 15 15 40 25 0 105 26 0 10 37 0 0
hotpepper 0 67 401 0 0 860 0 44 684 140 8 684 566
celery 0 0 0 0 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
parsley 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 29 0 131 0 0 0
coriander 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 18 0 134 8 0 0
rosemary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 0 0 0 0 0
sage 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150 0 0 0 0 0
amaranth 105 33 0 100 120 0 105 85 0 68 68 0 0
solanum macrocarpon 105 133 570 200 120 248 105 145 684 208 56 684 547
vernonia 0 33 0 0 60 0 55 44 0 0 26 0 0
cabbage 22 33 0 60 12 0 50 26 0 28 14 0 0
bellpepper 25 0 0 32 60 0 0 4 0 0 10 0 573
carott 250 390 412 250 0 840 55 270 0 462 242 684 0
beet 105 33 30 0 60 0 0 7 684 13 13 0 244
onion 0 120 275 0 60 270 50 113 0 19 33 0 560
chiayo 0 93 473 80 0 0 55 22 0 108 46 684 87
tomato 0 67 92 0 0 270 0 43 684 0 3 0 376
citronella 0 0 473 0 0 770 0 0 0 140 27 684 0
mint 0 0 0 0 30 106 0 5 0 11 6 0 0
oseille 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 115
agbegbe 0 0 0 0 0 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
basil 0 0 0 0 25 116 0 5 0 0 6 0 0
dill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0
corchorus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 13 7 0 0
Ceni agu 0 0 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
asorangbe 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

 

 

Appendix 2

Table2. Number of farmers per sociolinguistic group cropping the vegetables in south of Benin

Vegetables Adja Aizo Fon Goun Kotafon Mina Nago Nigeria Oueme Plateau Popo Sahoue Watchi Xwla Yoruba
lettuce 4 2 16 3 0 4 1 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 2
cucumber 2 1 12 0 0 4 1 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 1
hotpepper 3 1 3 0 1 23 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
celery 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
parsley 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0
coriander 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
rosemary 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
sage 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
amaranth 4 2 13 3 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 1
solanum macrocarpon 6 3 12 1 0 22 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 1
vernonia 3 1 9 0 0 10 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
cabbage 1 2 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
bellpepper 2 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 0 0 0
carott 6 3 13 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 6 0 0 2
beet 1 0 0 2 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0
onion 2 1 8 2 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 6 0 0 1
chiayo 0 0 4 2 0 29 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 1 0
tomato 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
citronella 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0
mint 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
oseille 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
agbegbe 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
basil 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
dill 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
corchorus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ceni agu 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
asorangbe 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Siboul 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

 

 

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