Advances in Agricultural Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">Welcome to AAS journal (ISSN: 2588-3801) submission system</span>.&nbsp; Journal Homepage address: <a href=""></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">&gt;&gt;&gt; To make a submission to AAS&nbsp;journal, you will first need to&nbsp;<a href="">register</a>&nbsp;as an Author.&nbsp;After that, when you<a href="">&nbsp;login</a>, you will be taken to your Dashboard,&nbsp;<strong>or send your manuscript via Email-&nbsp; (E-mail addresses for all authors are required) </strong>&lt;&lt;&lt;</span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Advances in Agricultural Science Editorial Office) Fri, 13 Apr 2018 22:40:26 +0430 OJS 60 Exogenous application of salicylic acid improves tolerance of wheat plants to lead stress <p>Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a signaling molecule and plays an important role in various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of SA in the enhancement of lead (Pb) tolerance in wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>) plants. When 2–3 true leaves had appeared, treatments were applied to the plants. The treatments were as follows: (i) no addition of SA and Pb (control), (ii) 2 µM SA + 0 mM Pb, (iii) 8 µM SA + 0 mM Pb, (iv) 0 mM SA + 2 mM Pb, (v) 2 µM SA + 2 mM Pb, and (vi) 8 µM SA + 2 mM Pb. One-way analysis of variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the means, and Duncan’s multiple-range test (DMRT) was used to determine significant (<em>P &lt; 0.05</em>) differences among the individual means of treatments. Exposure of Pb severely affected wheat plants by reducing plant height, fresh and dry weight, photosynthetic pigments (<em>Chl a</em> and <em>b,</em> <em>Chl a:b</em>) and carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity, and by enhancing <em>Chl </em>degradation, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde accumulation. Also, Pb treatment increased the accumulations of proline and total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismustase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD)]. However, application of SA induced biosynthesis of pigments by suppressing <em>Chl</em> degradation, and EL and malondialdehyde accumulation. Furthermore, SA treatments further enhanced the production of proline and TSC, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD. SA directly or indirectly improved physiological processes, which helped wheat plants to overcome the oxidative damage induced by Pb toxicity. Also, this study reveals that exogenous application of SA is beneficial for plant growth and development of wheat plants by suppressing ill effects of heavy metal stress. Therefore, this study opens up the hidden role of SA in tolerance of plants to heavy metal toxicity to explore its new regulatory role and defensive mechanism at physiological and molecular levels. Also, exogenous application of SA could be beneficial for sustainable agriculture.</p> Saud Ali Dayl Alamri, Manzer H Siddiqui, Mutahhar Yahya Al-Khaishany, Hayssam Mohamed Ali, Abdullah Al-Amri, Hala Khalid AlRabiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Apr 2018 14:50:02 +0430 Some Selected Engineering Properties of Seven Genotypes in Quinoa Seeds <p>Some selected engineering properties (geometrical, volumetrical, colour and mechanical) properties of seven genotypes in <em>quinoa</em> seeds were determined and compared in this study. <em>Che. quinoa (red) </em>genotype had the lowest geometric mean diameter and surface area, whereas <em>Che. quinoa (black)</em> genotype had the highest values among 7 quinoa genotypes, for these properties. The bulk density, true density, and porosity of quinoa genotypes were determined between 713.6 and 824.4 kg/m<sup>3</sup>, 766.9 and 911.4 kg/m<sup>3</sup>, 6.95 and 15.03% respectively. <em>Che. quinoa (Q11)</em> genotype had the lowest bulk and true densities, whereas <em>Che. quinoa</em> <em>(Ames)</em> genotype had the highest bulk and true density values among quinoa genotypes. The sphericity and seed volume values of <em>Che. quinoa (black)</em> genotype observed in quinoa genotypes were lower than the other quinoa genotypes. The lowest hue angle and chroma colour characteristics values were found as 33.61 and 8.41 in <em>Che. quinoa (black)</em> genotype among quinoa genotypes, respectively. The static friction coefficient and the angle of repose in quinoa genotypes were determined between 0.477 and 0.955, 14.09 and 23.57° respectively.&nbsp; The lowest rupture force and hardness were found in <em>Che. quinoa (black)</em> genotype, whereas, the highest rupture force and rupture energy were found in <em>Che. quinoa (PI)</em> genotype among <em>quinoa</em> genotypes. The study provides an opportunity that some engineering properties (including physical and mechanical properties in the quinoa seeds of seven genotypes may be useful in designing of the related equipment for postharvest handling and processing operations (harvesting, separating, processing, packing, and transportation). &nbsp;</p> Ebubekir Altuntas Altuntas, Ismail Naneli, Mehmet Ali Sakin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Conceptual Design and Feasibility Study of a Multi-Feed Integrated Biomass Conversion System <p>Biomass is recognized as a potential source for sustainable production of fuels. Forestry residuals has been used for the small-scale production of biodiesel since early 1800s. However, the biofuel market has not been suitable in recent decades due to the pronounced drop in the worldwide price of petroleum. In addition, environmental issues, low reactor yield, and uncertainties in biomass feedstock have challenged process design engineers. Hence, extensive research has been reported to address these issues. Pyrolysis and gasification processes can produce a wide range of fuels, chemical, solvents, and other valuable products from biomass. Scholars attempted to optimize various operating parameters, find innovative approaches to increase the reaction yield, and develop novel product upgrading techniques such as bio-oil upgrading; yet, limited studies were focused on implementation of these methods for a multi-feed integrated biomass production plant. Recent findings have created the foundational blocks for design of high-tech integrated biomass conversion systems. This paper is focused on conceptual design and feasibility study of such systems incorporating the strategies and technologies at hand. The available biomass conversion technologies for different feedstocks are combined in this design. To this end, a new plant is designed and simulated in ASPEN PLUS simulator using ASPEN Economic Analyzer to perform an economic analysis. Techno-feasibility results suggest that this plant is not profitable even after incorporating the new technologies and optimizing the system.</p> Saeed Ghanbari, Venkatesh Meda, Catherine Hui Niu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Apr 2018 11:48:16 +0430 A Quantitative Study of Diet of Calliptamus barbarus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Region of Jijel (Algeria) <p><em>Calliptamus barbarus </em>(Costa, 1836), (Orthoptera: Calliptaminae) is an important agricultural pest. In Algeria it causes a lot of damage. This species is known for its large chromatic and geographical polymorphism. To better understand the biology of this insect, we studied the quality and quantity of its diet. It is performed according to the conventional method of faecal analysis and complemented by quantification of ingested plants by using the method called “windows”. This method allows the identification with certainty of the quantity of plants ingested by the Orthoptera. It is based on calculation of the recovery rate of the plants, preparation of reference epidermis and analysis of feces. An index of palatability for each species is calculated from leaf surfaces ingested by each individual. It indicated that the trophic spectrum is very large and concluded that this insect is polyphagous with graminivorous trend. In fact, the most consumed vegetable species, any confused parameter, is <em>C. vesicaria</em>. Ii is followed respectively by <em>V. myuros, P. serraria and C. dactylon</em>. On the other hand, we noticed that the palatability index is not conforming to the recovery rate of the plants in the field and the most ingested plants are not necessarily the most appetizing.</p> Rouibah Moad, Nawouel Ferkhi, Djamila Labiod ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0330 Combination of nitric Oxide and thiamin regulates oxidative defense machinery and key physiological parameters in salt-stressed plants of two maize cultivars differing in salinity tolerance <p>A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise&nbsp; the influence of combined nitric oxide (NO) and thiamin (TA) on oxidative defense system and some key physiological attributes in two maize cultivars (DK 5783 and Apex 836) stressed with 0 (control) or 100 mM NaCl.&nbsp; Of six NO and TA levels used in the initial germination experiment, 2 levels of combined NO and TA (3 +100 or 6+ 125 mg l<sup>-1</sup> respectively) were chosen for subsequent studies as seed soaking or as a spray to seedlings. Salinity resulted in rising leaf free proline content and osmolality, but in a decrease in plant dry biomass and maximum fluorescence yield (<em>F</em><sub>v</sub><em>/F</em><sub>m</sub>) in cultivars. Both modes of applied NO and TA were found to be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of NaCl on shoot growth. Salt stress resulted in enhancing leaf Na<sup>+</sup>, but reducing leaf K<sup>+ </sup>and Ca<sup>2+ </sup>in plants. Both modes of application of NO and TA resulted in increased Ca<sup>2+</sup> and K<sup>+</sup> contents, but decreased those of&nbsp; Na<sup>+</sup> in salt stressed maize plants. Salt stress caused the enhanced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and malondialdehyde (MDA).&nbsp; Salinity promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in maize. The growth improvement in maize plants due to exogenously-applied&nbsp; NO and TA in combination&nbsp; was found to be due to decreased leaf Na<sup>+</sup>, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>and MDA levels, and altered&nbsp; activities of SOD, CAT, and POD as well as improved maximum fluorescence yield under saline stress.</p> Cengiz Kaya, Muhammad Ashraf, Osman Sonmez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Feb 2018 22:30:14 +0330