Advances in Agricultural Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">Welcome to AAS journal (ISSN: 2588-3801) submission system</span>.&nbsp; Journal Homepage address: <a href=""></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">&gt;&gt;&gt; To make a submission to AAS&nbsp;journal, you will first need to&nbsp;<a href="">register</a>&nbsp;as an Author.&nbsp;After that, when you<a href="">&nbsp;login</a>, you will be taken to your Dashboard,&nbsp;<strong>or send your manuscript via Email-&nbsp; (E-mail addresses for all authors are required) </strong>&lt;&lt;&lt;</span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Advances in Agricultural Science en-US Advances in Agricultural Science 2588-3801 Determination of Genetic Variation and Expression Pattern of DHNs and HSPs in Some Rice Genotypes under Water Stress <p>The present study aimed to investigate the different responses of sensitive and tolerant rice genotypes under water stress conditions induced by using poly ethylene glycol (PEG 6000). The studied genotypes were Giza177, Giza181, Giza182 and Sakha103 (sensitive), Sakha104 (moderate) and Orabi2 (tolerant). The present investigation included the determination of germination %, fresh and dry weight, shoot and root length, cell membranes stability as rate of electrolyte leakage (EL) and lipid peroxidation as MDA content. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR) for some protective proteins such as heat stable proteins (<em>HSPs</em>) and dehydrins (<em>DHNs</em>) standardized on actin transcript amounts were carried out to investigate the changes in the expression pattern of those genes. All determinations were carried out for all studied genotypes under both control and drought conditions. The obtained results revealed that water stress tolerance of tolerant genotypes was accompanied with decreasing of electrolyte leakage rate and low content of MDA comparing with sensitive ones. sqRT-PCR analysis for expression pattern of studied genes showed increasing in the expression of <em>HSP-13</em>, <em>HSP-12</em>, <em>HSP-9</em> and <em>DHN-2</em> in the seedlings of tolerant genotypes comparing with sensitive ones. The present study pointed to the participation of those genes in the acquisition of drought tolerance in tolerant genotypes.</p> Samar Abdelaziz Omar Mohammed Hussin Abdelfatah Medhat Eraqi Eldenary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-17 2018-09-17 6 4 99 113 Effects of blended fertilizers on soil chemical properties of mature tea fields in Kenya <p>Kenya tea industry have focused predominantly on the use of compound NPK fertilizers. These fertilizers cannot be easily manipulated for specific soils and tea clones. In this respect, two fertilizer blends contaning NPKS 25:5:5:4+9Ca+2.6Mg and NPKS 23:5:5:4 +10Ca+3Mg with trace elements have been produced commercially in the Country. However, their application rates that would result in optimal nutrients level are lacking. This is the knowledge gap that this study sought to address. Therefore, the fertilizer blends were assessed for their effects on soil chemical properties at different rate in two sites i.e. Timbilil Estate in Kericho and Kagochi farm in Nyeri. The sites were selected purposefully, one in the eastern and the other in the western tea growing areas. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used to select 36 trial plots in the two areas which were treated with two fertilizer blends and standard NPK NPK 26:5:5 as control, and four fertilizer application rates (0 -control, 75, 150, and 225 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The trial was replicated three times. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil nutrient levels. The data were then subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mstat C computer software package. Soil acidity decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) down the profile (3.08, 4.02 and 4.08) in Kagochi. Soil available Ca and Mg levels were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in the upper depth (Ca were 652 and 412 while Mg were 77 and 62 for Timbilil and Kagochi, respectively) in both sites then decreased down the profile. This study has shown that supplementing the soil applied NPK fertilizers with calcium, magnesium and micronutrients resulted in improved soil quality.</p> Kibet Sitienei Hellen W. Kamiri Gilbert M. Nduru David M. Kamau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-13 2018-09-13 6 4 85 98 Economic efficiency of water use in the small scale irrigation systems used in vegetables production in Koulikoro and Mopti regions, Mali <p>Malian households depend, in majority, on rain-fed agriculture for their food production. Overreliance on rain-fed agriculture limits the production output due to unreliable rainfall in the country. To mitigate this, the government has invested in rehabilitation of irrigation schemes to reduce dependence on rainfall. Through appropriate irrigation technologies and improved agronomic management practices agricultural productivity will be increased. This study determines the contribution of different irrigation systems to produce vegetables on household welfare in rural communities. The objective of the study was to contribute to improved livelihood of smallholder farmers in rural areas by use of irrigation systems in vegetables production. Three localities corresponding to two specific climatic regions favorable to vegetable crops production in Mali (Baguineda, Kati, Koulikoro region and Mopti region) was the study area. This study was guided by the production theory. Primary data was collected from 273 farmers selected proportionately from four wards (Fanafiecoura and Tieman, in Koulikoro region and Mopti and Dialango, in Mopti region) using face-to-face interviews. Secondary data from literature reviews was also used. Descriptive statistics and DEA functions were used for analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Stata and Excel programs were used for analysis. This study found that the irrigation systems as used in production of the three main crops to be characterized by inefficiency. Drip and sprinkling irrigation systems was relatively more economically efficient as compared with Californian system. The use of drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems lead to greater benefits as compared to costs. The excess benefit (compared to costs) is realized more with drip followed by sprinkling and the third being California irrigation system. This study recommends more training and capacity building to the farmers in the study area with an aim of reducing their levels of inefficiencies in horticultural crop production. Farmers should be supported to adopt the use of drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems which lead to greater benefits as compared to costs. Drip, sprinkling and Californian irrigation systems present a good opportunity for superior technical efficiency in vegetable production. These irrigation technologies should be promoted.</p> Abdoulah Mamary Kane Job Kibiwot Lagat Jackson Kipngetich Langat Bino Teme Samuel Ngunjiri Wamuyu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-11 2018-09-11 6 4 72 84 Long–term straw retention drives carbon sequestration and crop productivity in dryland soils <p>Higher population densities in rural areas and climate change have necessitated technical change in crop production. Intensification without causing degradation is required to cope with changing population dynamics.&nbsp; A study was conducted to assess the influence of tillage systems on crop yield and soil carbon balance in a long-term spring wheat?field pea rotation in a rain–fed semiarid Loess Plateau environment. Experimental work included the following treatments: conventional tillage with straw removed (T), no till with straw removed (NT), no till with straw retention (NTS) and conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS). Straw treated soils resulted in decreased soil temperature and increased soil moisture&nbsp; compared to soils with straw removed. No tillage with straw retained treatments produced the highest average grain yield of 1809 kg ha<sup>–1</sup> on average than that of conventional tillage with straw removed (1280 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>) and no till with straw removed (1337 kg ha<sup>–1</sup>). No tillage with straw retained and conventional tillage with straw incorporated had positive soil C balance, but the effect was greater on no tillage plots. The lower C inputs under treatments witht straw removed translated into negative soil C balance. NTS farming practices demonstrated sustained increases in soil quality and crop productivity, whiles treatments with straw removed reduced carbon inputs in dryland cropping system.</p> Stephen Yeboah Shirley Lamptey Renzhi Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-10 2018-09-10 6 4 60 71 Nematicidal Effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Against Meloidogyne incognita infecting Pea <p><em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (BS) and <em>B. pumilus</em> (BP1 and BP2) were applied alone as well as in combination for controlling <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> infecting pea in pot experiment. Single treatments of bacteria significantly reduced the numbers of juvenile (J<sub>2</sub>) in soil (50-80%) ,J<sub>2</sub> in roots (57-78%), females (55-74%), galls&nbsp; (65-74%) and egg-masses (56-70%) , while the combination treatments of them significantly reduced the same parameters in the ranges of 29-76% , 61-77% , 46-69% , 47-67% and 40-61% , compared to 71 , 70 , 70 ,68 and 65% , with Carbofuran 10%, respectively.&nbsp; Results showed that BP2 highly reduced the J<sub>2</sub> in soil , BS highly reduced J<sub>2</sub> in roots BS and BP1 highly reduced the numbers of females, galls and egg-masses in roots. On the other hand, BP1 + BP2 highly reduced the numbers of J<sub>2</sub> in soil, J<sub>2</sub>, females and egg-masses in roots, while BS+BP1+BP2 treatment highly reduced the galls number.&nbsp; <em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>B. pumilus</em>, as single treatment, in some parameters, had more nematicidal activity against <em>M. incognita</em>, than in combination treatments. Treatments also significantly increased the growth parameters of pea plants shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, leaves numbers and pod fresh and dry weight<em>.</em> The treatments improved the soluble protein and total phenolic compounds in treated pea plants. &nbsp;</p> Wafaa Mohamed El-Nagdi H. Abd-El-Khair Mona G. Dawood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-06 2018-09-06 6 4 52 59