Advances in Agricultural Science 2018-12-13T11:51:01+0330 Advances in Agricultural Science Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">Welcome to AAS journal (ISSN: 2588-3801) submission system</span>.&nbsp; Journal Homepage address: <a href=""></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">&gt;&gt;&gt; To make a submission to AAS&nbsp;journal, you will first need to&nbsp;<a href="">register</a>&nbsp;as an Author.&nbsp;After that, when you<a href="">&nbsp;login</a>, you will be taken to your Dashboard,&nbsp;<strong>or send your manuscript via Email-&nbsp; (E-mail addresses for all authors are required) </strong>&lt;&lt;&lt;</span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Phytochemical Accumulation in Photomorphogenesis of Peppermint 2018-12-13T11:51:01+0330 Semra Kilic Onur Tarakci <p>The production of phytochemicals due to biotic and abiotic factors are a result of the changes in growth parameters of the plant. Changes in the intensity and quality of light results in alterations of several biochemical and physiological processes of plants and manifests as changes in morphological and anatomical parameters. The relationship between phytochemicals production of peppermint and its growth responses under different photoperiods was determined. Photoperiod significantly affected the number and size of both stomata and capitate and peltate trichomes in leaves. This effect different photoperiod resulted in different numbers of peltate trichomes and different capitate trichome sizes between same surfaces of different leaves and between different surfaces of the same leaf. As a result, we found that the most suitable photoperiod (8 h light / 16 h dark), which improves the amount and content of phytochemicals with parameters changing coordinated with photoperiod change in phytochemical synthesis metabolism of Peppermint.</p> 2018-12-13T11:51:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Climate Variability, Trends and expected implication on crop production in a Semi-Arid Environment of Machakos County, Kenya 2018-11-15T23:44:13+0330 Emily Nyaboke Bosire Wilson Gitau Fredrick Karanja Gilbert Ouma <p>Climate variability and change are among the greatest hindrance to the realization of the Rio +20 declaration addressed by Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD’s) Initiatives on “Food for All” and the planned Kenyan vision 2030 of transforming Kenya to self-reliance in food production since it directly influences agricultural production and community livelihoods. Knowledge of climate variability is currently of remarkable importance in Kenya, where agriculture is the driver of its economy contributing approximately 26 % of the Gross Domestic Product.&nbsp; This study investigated the extent of the temporal variability and trends of rainfall, temperature and their effect on crop production for the period (1981 to 2013) in Machakos County, Kenya. The findings show that the March to May (MAM) season is characterized by high variations seasonal rainfall compared to the October to December (OND) season in the study area, but with low variability in both seasonal and annual temperatures. The results also showed insignificant trends for the intra seasonal rainfall characteristics. However, significant decreasing trends of rainfall at seasonal and annual scales were recorded at two stations out of the three studied (Iveti and Machakos DO station).&nbsp; Results of the maximum (minimum) temperature show significant increase during the MAM (OND) season and at annual scale.</p> 2018-11-15T23:44:13+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Resource Optimization in Crop Livestock Integrated Production System among Small-Scale Cotton Farmers in Southern Mali 2018-11-06T14:06:49+0330 Abdoulaye Nientao Dave Mwangi Oscar Ingasia Ayuya Alpha Oumar Kergna <p>Crop and livestock enterprise combinations among small-scale farmers were studied in southern Mali with the purpose of determining the most profitable combination of crop and livestock enterprises. Primary data was collected from four categories of farmers which are types A, B, C and D. This classification of farmers was done by research and it was based on the level of agricultural equipment (plough and cart) and number of oxen. Therefore, data was collected from 171 randomly selected farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study is based on profit maximization using a linear programming (LP) model through total gross margin of the major crops and livestock enterprises. Results showed that small-scale cotton farmers were do not efficiently utilize their current resources. If present level of resources were efficiently optimized, the results showed that farmers could increase their profit by 104.80%, 54.35%, 23.01% and 19.52% for types A, B, C and D in Southern Mali respectively. Further, the results revealed that resources such as labor, land and number of animals could be the major constraints if the resources were well optimized. The study also showed that the most profitable combination of crop and livestock enterprises is cotton / maize / rice / cattle /sheep / donkey for small-scale cotton farmers in Southern Mali. &nbsp;</p> 2018-11-06T14:06:46+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Improvement of the productivity of millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) Intercropped with the Arabic gum tree (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.) in agroforestry parkland in Niger 2018-10-31T23:15:54+0330 Ali Abdoulkadri Aichatou Assoumane Maman Manssour Abdou Issoufou Hassane Bil-assanou Djibo El Hadji Seybou Zoubeirou Mayaki Alzouma <p>In Niger, <em>Acacia senegal</em> species is used in agroforestry parklands in association with several cereals including millet. However, the performance of these associations is not optimal since the techniques applied lack expertise. The objective of this work is to promote the intercropping system <em>Acacia senegal</em> - millet to improve millet productivity. We compared millet production in different areas in an agroforestry parkland based on <em>Acacia senegal</em> in a Sahelian agro-ecological zone in Niger. Over two successive rainy seasons, concentric crowns are designed around <em>A. senegal</em> trees. Millet growth and yield parameters are measured on millet plants inside each crown under cover and out of cover of <em>A. senegal</em> canopy. In the second year, the experimentation was completed with some plots of 5 m x 5 m designed in two pure millet fields. Physico-chemical soil characterization of both cropping systems was also performed in the second year of the trial. The results of this study showed that growth and yield parameters are higher out of cover than under cover of <em>A. senegal</em>. However, these parameters are higher in the whole parkland compared to the pure millet culture system. The levels of mineral elements such as carbon and nitrogen are higher in the parkland than in fields of pure millet. These results show that the parkland with <em>A. senegal</em> has increased soil fertility, and improved yield of millet, so this system could be disseminated at the level of agricultural producers to improve the production of this cereal. &nbsp;</p> 2018-10-31T22:55:35+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of water management system on the performance of boro rice 2018-10-29T11:22:52+0330 Farhana Prodhan Md. Sultan Uddin Bhuiya Md. Romij Uddin Uttam Kumer Sarker Md. Shafiqul Islam <p>An experiment was conducted to determine the response of three rice varieties to different water management systems. The rice varieties V<sub>1</sub> (Binadhan-8), V<sub>2</sub> (Binadhan-10), and V<sub>3</sub> (BRRI dhan28) were grown with maintaining four Alternate Flooding and Wetting (AFW) irrigation treatments i.e I<sub>1</sub> (Continuous saturation), I<sub>2</sub> (Alternate flooding and wetting at 6 days after disappearance of 4 cm water), I<sub>3 </sub>(Alternate flooding and wetting at 9 days after disappearance of 4 cm water), and I<sub>4</sub> (Alternate flooding and wetting at 12 days after disappearance of 4 cm water). The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design (SPD) with three replications. Varieties and water management systems exerted the significant effect on the plant growth, yield, and yield contributing characters of rice. The highest grain yield (6.84 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in V<sub>2</sub> (Binadhan-10). In respect of water management systems, alternate flooding and wetting at 9 days after the disappearance of 4 cm water (I<sub>3</sub>) produced maximum grain yield (6.92 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). It was also found that the rice grown at continuous saturation (I<sub>1</sub>) treatment did not increase the yield, rather caused the wastage of irrigation water. The highest (0.278 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>cm<sup>-1</sup>) water productivity was found in treatment I<sub>4</sub> but not grain yield. In treatment I<sub>4</sub>, irrigation was applied only at critical stages of rice consequently, the minimum amount of water was used and decreased the yield. On the contrary, the highest yield (6.92 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) was observed in I<sub>3 </sub>treatment because of the optimum use of water and non-stress condition. &nbsp;</p> 2018-10-28T19:31:00+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement##