Advances in Agricultural Science 2018-07-11T22:48:06+0430 Advances in Agricultural Science Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">Welcome to AAS journal (ISSN: 2588-3801) submission system</span>.&nbsp; Journal Homepage address: <a href=""></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><span class="st">&gt;&gt;&gt; To make a submission to AAS&nbsp;journal, you will first need to&nbsp;<a href="">register</a>&nbsp;as an Author.&nbsp;After that, when you<a href="">&nbsp;login</a>, you will be taken to your Dashboard,&nbsp;<strong>or send your manuscript via Email-&nbsp; (E-mail addresses for all authors are required) </strong>&lt;&lt;&lt;</span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rapid leaf area measurement methods for Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) grown under tropical condition 2018-07-11T19:50:00+0430 Samuel Olumide Daramola Faucett Olagundoye Olasantan Adewale Waheed Salau Patience Mojibade Olorunmaiye Joseph Aremu Adigun Tunrayo Tinuoye Joseph-Adekunle Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan <p>Leaf area (LA) is a valuable key for plant physiological studies, therefore accurate and simple models for LA determination are important for many experimental comparisons. Field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (07<sup>o</sup>15’N, 03<sup>o</sup> 25’E) in the forest-savannah transition zone of South West Nigeria in 2013 to estimate leaf area (LA) of peppermint <em>(Mentha piperita</em> L.) using functions between plant LA and fresh weight (FW), dry weights (DW) and leaf dimensions (width-W and length-L) to identify appropriate functions for use in models estimating leaf area of peppermint. Leaf samples were randomly selected from the lower, middle and upper parts of the plant at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after transplanting (DAT). Leaf length, width, L<sup>2</sup>, W<sup>2</sup>, product of these dimensions and leaf fresh and dry weights of 150 leaf samples were assessed and compared with actual leaf area measured by graph tracing method, to test their accuracy and reliability using Y = a + bX model. There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.6 to 0.9) between actual leaf area and the corresponding leaf length, width, L<sup>2</sup>, W<sup>2</sup>, product of these dimensions and leaf fresh and dry weights. Regression analyses of LA versus FW, DW, L, W, L<sup>2</sup>, W<sup>2</sup> and the products of these dimension revealed several models that could be used for estimating the area of individual peppermint leaf. Among the models, one based on length dimension (LA = a + bL) r = 0.9, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.96, RMSE = 0.03 was the most accurate. To validate this model, actual leaf area of 60 leaf samples obtained by graph tracing method was compared with leaf area estimated by the model at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS in another trial in 2014 wet season. The leaf area estimated by the models strongly agreed with the measured value of leaf area as evident from high value of R<sup>2</sup> (0.99) and low RMSE (0.03). The validation of the models indicates that model (LA = a + bL) was accurate and reliable to determine the leaf area of peppermint and therefore would be very useful for field workers dealing with large samples. &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-11T18:53:50+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Management Systems on Soil Aggregation and Crop Yield in Rainfed Loess Plateau 2018-07-11T19:50:00+0430 Stephen Yeboah Shirley Lamptey Renzhi Zhang <p>Soil aggregation may be affected by soil tillage and crop rotation in dryland areas. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different combinations of tillage and straw application on soil aggregation in the soil aggregate fractions after fifteen years of spring wheat–field pea rotation. Experimental work included the following treatments: conventional tillage with straw removed (T), no–till with straw removed (NT), no?till with straw retention on the soil surface (NTS) and conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS). Soil samples were collected to depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–30 cm from five points in each plot after harvest of the crop in 2015. Wet–sieving method was used to separate four classes of aggregates, named as large macroaggregate (&gt;2000 ?m), small macroaggregate (250–2000 ?m), microaggregate (53–250?m) and silt and clay (&lt;53 ?m). The results showed that compare with T treatment, all conservation tillage methods significantly reduced soil bulk density and increased total porosity. NTS improved soil saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly at 0-30cm. In surface soil (0–10 cm) NTS and TS treatments increased mean weight diameter (MWD) by 19.23% and 12.52% compared with T treatment, respectively. The aggregate content (?0.25 mm), Mean weight diameter (MWD), Geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the mechanical stable aggregates had significant positive correlation with crop yields. The result of this study suggests that NTS in Lossiah soils may be a better way to enhance soil productivity and improve soil C sequestration potential. &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-10T19:39:03+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aggregate Size, Particulate and Total Organic Carbon in Different Land Uses on a Sandy Loam Soil Exposed to Wind Erosion 2018-07-11T19:50:00+0430 Eduardo Abel Rienzi Antonio Marchi Gabriel Rodriguez <p>After 16 years under crops and pasture, an assessment was performed to determine the aggregation status and soil quality in a sandy loam soil exposed to wind erosion in a semiarid region of Argentina. The goal was to test the effectivity of pastures to improve soil qualities that increase the resistance to the erosive process and the degree of soil degradation produced under moldboard tillage. Soil samples from natural forest of <em>Prosopis caldenia</em> (calden) and bare soils were used to compare the effect of <em>Secale cereale</em> (rye) under plowing and cross strips with <em>Eragrostis curvula</em> (weeping love grass). The selected properties measured were aggregate size distribution (ASD), mean weight diameter (MWD), macro to microaggregate ratio, Chepil index, and total organic carbon content (OC). The OC and coarse (&gt;0.250 mm) and fine (&gt;0.05 mm) particulate organic matter, CPOM and FPOM, respectively, in four classes of aggregates (0.250, 0.500, 2.5 and 4.8 mm in size) were recorded. The results indicated that rye and <em>Eragrostis </em>included 80% of the ASD with aggregates smaller than 0.250 mm, 70% in the bare soil and only 60% in the natural forest. The lowest value of Chepil index<strong>, </strong>i.e., the minimum wind erosion risk, was observed in Prosopis and Eragrostis. Additionally, under natural forest the MWD was the largest, intermediate in Eragrostis and the lowest was measured in the bare soil and rye. The OC content varied with aggregate sizes and land uses, but those values were not consistent with the land use. Only Eragrostis presented a consistent positive relationship between OC and aggregate size. In this sandy loam soil the aggregation seems to depend on CPOM and FPOM. Specifically, the large aggregates in Eragrostis depend on CPOM and under natural forest, on FPOM. However, conventional plowing removed all the influence of particulate organic matter. Our finding is confirming the superior soil quality developed under natural forest and the need to replace the aggressive moldboard tillage system for no tillage due to the physical and biological degradation caused on this soil after 20 years of cropping. &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-10T11:40:24+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rhizobial inoculation methods affect the nodulation and plant growth traits of host plant genotypes: A case study of Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasms cultivated by smallholder farmers in Eastern Kenya 2018-07-11T19:49:59+0430 Ephraim Motaroki Menge Ezekiel Mugendi Njeru Gilbert Koskey John Maingi <p>Rhizobia inoculants are soil bacteria that promote biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Understanding of rhizobia-host genotype association is a critical step in enhancing legume productivity. Questionnaires were used to identify the common bean varieties cultivated in Eastern Kenya. The native rhizobia were isolated from the root nodules of MAC 13 and MAC 64 bean varieties. Afterwards, a greenhouse bioassay with four inoculation treatments using sterilized soil; 1) mixture of isolated strains, 2) commercial exotic inoculant (Biofix), 3) mixture of isolated strain + commercial inoculant, 4) control without inoculation were set up in a complete randomized design with three replications. Four weeks later, beans were sampled and examined for nodule number (NNO), nodule dry weight (NDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), shoot nitrogen (%N) and phosphorus (P). Results demonstrated that highest and significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) NDW, SDW and shoot %N content were achieved in a mix of native consortium+ commercial rhizobia, while the highest and significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) P content was realized in a consortium of native rhizobia inoculation. Moreover, there was a significant interaction (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) between&nbsp; rhizobia and bean varieties with Kabuu recording the highest NDW, SDW, %N and P contents in a mix of native consortium+ commercial exotic rhizobia. Gacere recorded the highest NDW and SDW when inoculated with commercial rhizobia. Native rhizobia inoculation recorded the highest shoot %N variability in all bean varieties when compared to commercial and a mixture of native+ commercial rhizobia. These results show the mutual preference that exists between rhizobia and bean varieties and the multistrain synergism between native and commercial exotic rhizobia. Further studies should explicate the performance of diverse native rhizobia inoculants used in this study under field conditions. &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-05T20:20:08+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physico-mechanical, colour and chemical properties of selected cherry laurel genotypes of Turkey 2018-07-11T22:48:06+0430 Ebubekir Altuntas Onur Saracoglu Hakan Polatci <p>This study was carried out to determine the physico-mechanical (geometric, volumetric, fricitional, fruit removal force, compression force and puncture force), colour and chemical properties (titratable acidity, soluble solid content and pH) of three cherry laurel genotypes (<em>54 K 01, 55 K 07 </em>and<em> 61 K 04</em>)&nbsp; cultivated in Turkey. The geometric properties such as geometric mean diameter and sphericity were found in the range of 13.3 to 17.4 for fruit, 8.3 to 9.6 mm for fruits pit and 6.1 to 6.9 mm for kernel of cherry laurel <em>54 K 01, 55 K 07 </em>and<em> 61 K 04</em> genotypes, respectively. <em>54 K 01</em> cherry laurel genotye had the highest volumetric properties such as bulk densit and true density for fruits, whereas, <em>55 K 07</em> genotype for stone had the least values among these three cherry laurel genotypes for these properties. <em>54 K 01</em> genotype had the highest colour values for L*, a*, and b* of fruits as 24.1, 16.2, 2.4 and its stone as 40.8, 11.2, 14.3 among three cherry laurel genotypes, <em>54 K 01</em> had the lowest L*, a*and b* values for kernel of cherry laurel fruits as 42.0, 7.7 and 12.9, respectively. The fruit removal force ranged from 0.38 to 0.59 N, whereas, the puncture force for <em>X-, Y-, Z-</em> axes from 0.39 to 0.75 N; from 0.37 to 0.65 N, from 0.39 to 0.55 N, among three cherry laurel genotypes, respectively. The static friction coefficient of cherry laurel fruit, its stone and kernels changed from 0.29 to 0.72 (fruit), 0.41 to 0.93 (stone), from 0.34 to 0.60 (kernel), respectively. The coefficient of friction of cherry laurel fruit, its stone and kernels were largely influenced by the friction surfaces studied, and highest values were found genotypes. &nbsp;It is important to determine physico-mechanical (geometric, volumetric, frictional, fruit removal force, puncture) and rupture force, colour and chemical properties of particular fruit, its stone and kernels for selected cherry laurel genotypes which may increase fruit quality, economic value for harvest and post harvest technologies. Therefore, these properties should be considered. &nbsp;</p> 2018-07-04T21:16:00+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement##