Integrating vermicomposting in animal manure treatment to improve yield parameters of maize (Zea mays)

Main Article Content

Sifolo Seydou Coulibaly Kouadio I. Kouassi Kouame K. Koffi Bi I. A. Zoro


The use of raw animal manure as fertilizer by smallholder farmers to increase agricultural productivity can cause serious environmental issues and an abnormal flavor of the production. These problems make manure treatment necessary before its application. This is possible if producers have the possibility to bear the cost. Vermicomposting is a low-cost and environmentally sustainable technology that transforms organic wastes into vermicompost to improve the productivity, but little is known about its efficacy on maize productivity in Côte d'Ivoire. The experiment consisted of three randomized complete blocks design with three replicates by using vermicompost from pig manure as fertilizer on a ferralitic soil during three season-cycles. The vermicompost was spread at different stages of the plant development. The agronomic parameters as the number of leaves under the ear, the insertion height of ears, plant height and yield attributes were investigated. Results showed that vermicompost improved the agronomic parameters of maize. The tallest plants, the highest number of branches per panicle (19.35±5.70), the highest number of leaves under the ear (7.35±0.93), and the highest insertion height of the ears (108.9±24.87 cm) were observed when the vermicompost was spread at the emergence stage. The highest yield attributes such as the diameter of ears (13.64±1.20 cm), the number of grains per row (38.18±10.30), the length of ear (18.52±2.56 cm), the weight of ear (195,24±49,57 g), the number of row of grains per ear (13.45±1.32) and the weight of 100 grains (17.11±3.79 g) were obtained when the vermicompost was spread at the emergence stage. The highest roots biomass (63.22±50.18 g) and aerial biomass (501.68±229.58 g) of the plant were obtained with the vermicompost spread at the emergence stage. This study recommends vermicompost spreading at maize emergence stage for its optimum productivity.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Coulibaly, S., I. Kouassi, K., K. Koffi, K., & I. A. Zoro, B. (2019). Integrating vermicomposting in animal manure treatment to improve yield parameters of maize (Zea mays). Advances in Agricultural Science, 7(2), 48-58. Retrieved from


Adilo?lu S, Aç?kgöz FE, Solmaz Y, Çaktü E, Adilo?lu A (2018). Effect of vermicompost on the growth and yield of lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa). International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 21(1): 1-5.
ATLAS (2017) World-Maize production quantity. Available on /
World/topics/Agriculture/Crops-Production-Quantity-tonnes/Maize-production access on March 3, 2019.
Awodun MA (2007). Effect of Poultry Manure on the Growth Yield and Nutrient Content of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis HookF). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 1: 67-73.
Bockman OC, Kaarstad O, Lie OH, Richards I (1990). Agriculture et fertilisation. Oslo (Norvège): Norsk Hydro; 258 pages.
Coulibaly SS, Flavien Ettien Edoukou, Kouadio I. Kouassi, N. Barsan, V. Nedeff, Bi
I.A. Zoro, 2018. Vermicompost utilization: A way to food security in rural area. Heliyon 4: e01104.
Coulibaly SS, Tondoh JE, Kouassi KI, Barsan N, Nedeff V, Zoro Bi (2016). Vermicomposts
improve yields and seeds quality of Lagenaria siceraria in Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 8 (3): 26-37.
Coulibaly SS, Kouassi KI, Koffi KK, Zoro Bi (2019). Effect of compost from different animal
manures on maize (Zea mays) growth. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 7(2): 178-185.
Djiakariya C (2004). Analyse thématique des données du Recensement Nationale de l’Agriculture 2001: secteur des ressources animales. Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire); 28 pages.
Durand JR, Skubich M (1982). Les lagunes ivoiriennes. Aquaculture 27: 211-250.
Elalaoui AC (2007). Fertilisation minérale des cultures. Les éléments minéraux secondaires
et oligo-éléments. Bulletin mensuel d’information et de liaison du PNTTA n° 156. Rabat, 4 pages.
Elwell DL, Keener HM, Wiles MC, Borger DC, Willett LB (2001). Odorous emissions and odor control in composting swine manure/sawdust mixes using continuous and intermittent aeration. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engeneers 44 (5): 1307-1316.
Lassina F, Kouamé C, N’Guessan P, Adou A (1993). Utilisation des fumures organiques et minerales sur cultures maraîchères en Côte d’Ivoire. RADHORT-Documents, IDESSA, Bouaké, 11 pages.
Gay SW, Schmidt DR, Clanton CJ, Janni KA, Jacobson LD, Weisberg S (2003). Odor, total reduced sulfur and ammonia emissions from animal housing facilities and manures storage units in Minnesota. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 19 (3): 347-360.
Guo L, Wu G, Li C, Liu W, Yu X, Cheng D, Jiang G (2015). Vermicomposting with maize increases agricultural benefits by 304 %. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35 (3) : 1149-1155.
Hartmann M, Frey B, Mayer J, Mäder P, Widmer F. 2014. Distinct soil microbial diversity under
improve soil fertility and carbon storage in smallholder banana farming systems? Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 178: 237-249.
Ipinmoroti RR, Watanabe T, Ito O (2008). Effect of Brachiaria humidicola root exudates, rhizosphere soils, moisture and temperature regimes on nitrification in two volcanic ash soils of Japan. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4: 106-113.
Jeyabal A, Kuppuswamy G (2001). Recycling of organic wastes for the production of vermicompost and its response in rice-legume cropping system and soil fertility. European Journal of Agronomy 15 : 153-170.
Jones A, Breuning-Madsen H, Brossard M, Dampha A, Deckers J, Dewitte O, Gallali T, Hallett S, Jones R, Kilasara M, Le Roux P, Micheli E, Montanarella L, Spaargaren O, Thiombiano L, Van Ranst E, Yemefack M, Zougmoré R (2013). Soil Atlas of Africa. European Commission, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 176 pages.
Kmetova M, Kovacik P (2014). The impact of vermicompost application on the maize (Zea mays
l.) phytomass creation at the growth stage 16 (BBCH-scale) and on the selected yield parameters of maize. Mendel Net 1: 53-58.
Kumar R, Merasenla A, Kumawat N (2014). Enhancing crops productivity and profitability
through using of organic fertilizers. Popular Kheti 2(2), 218-221.
Kunz A, Miele M, Steinmetz RLR (2009). Advanced swine manure treatment and utilization in Brazil. Bioresource Technology 100: 5485-5489.
Laekemariam F, Gidago G (2012) Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to integrated fertilizer application in Wolaita, South Ethiopia. Advances in Life Science and Technology 5: 21–30.
Lim SL, Wu TY, Sim EYS, Lim PN, Clarke C (2012). Biotransformation of rice husk into organic fertilizer through vermicomposting. Ecological Engineering 41: 60-64.
Maheshbabu HM, Hunje R, Biradar NKP, Balad HB (2008). Effect of organic manures on plant growth, seed yield and quality of soybean. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 21(2): 219-221
N'Dayegamiye A, Côté D (1996). Effet d'application à long terme de fumier de bovins, de lisier de porc et de l'engrais minéral sur la teneur en matière organique et la structure du sol. Agrosol 9 (1): 31-35.
Nuss ET, Tanumihardjo SA (2010). Maize: A Paramount Staple Crop in the Context of Global
Nutrition. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9: 417-436.
Olle M (2016). The effect of vermicompost based growth substrates on tomato growth. Journal of Agricultural Science 1: 38-41.
Panagos P, Standardi G, Borrelli P, Lugato E, Montanarella L, Bosello F (2018). Cost of
agricultural productivity loss due to soil erosion in the European Union: From direct cost evaluation approaches to the use of macroeconomic models. Land Degradation and Development 29: 471-484.
Pretty J, Toulmin C, Williams S (2011). Sustainable intensification in African agriculture.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9(1): 5-24.
Ridine W, Ngakou A, Mbaiguinam M, Namba F, Anna P (2014) Changes in growth and yield
attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (NPK) and organic (bat’s manure) fertilizers in Pala (Chad) grown field. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 1763-1770.
Sasson, A (2012). Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge. Agriculture & Food Security 1:2-16.
Soltner D (2003). Les bases de la production végétale. Tome I: le sol et son amélioration. Poitiers (France): Sciences et Techniques Agricoles; 472 pages.
Soro D, Koutoua Ayolié K, Gohi Bi Zro F, Yéboua FY, Kouadio HKK, Bakayoko S, Pascal
Téhua Angui PT, Kouadio, JY (2015). Impact of organic fertilization on maize (Zea mays L.) production in a ferralitic soil of centre - West Cote d’Ivoire. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 3(6): 556-565.
Suthar S (2008). Bioconversion of post harvest crop residues and cattle shed manure into value-added products using earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg. Ecological Engineering 32, 206-214.
Sutharsan S., Rajendran M (2010). Influence of liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of maize (Zea maysL.). AGRIEAST (9): 11-16.
Tejada M, Gonzalez JL (2004a). Effects of foliar application of a byproduct of the two-step olive oil mill process on rice yield. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 31-40.
Tejada M, Gonzalez JL (2004b). Effects of application of a byproduct of the two-step olive oil mill process on maize yield. Agronomy Journal 96: 692-699.
Tejada M, Gonzalez JL (2006). Effect of foliar application of beet vinasse on maize yield. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 24: 197-214.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture (2018). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference: Basic Report 20016, Corn flour, whole-grain, yellow. ndb/foods/show/305219. Accessed on February 21, 2019.
Varma VS, Kalamdhada AS, Khwairkpam M (2016). Feasibility of Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus in vermicomposting of water hyacinth. Ecological Engineering 94: 127-135.
Venglosky J, Sasakova N, Placha I (2009). Pathogens and antibiotic residues in animal manures and hygienic and ecological risks related to subsequent land application. Bioresource Technology 100: 5386-5391.
Yao-Kouamé A, Alou KR (2008). Proprietes du sol et domestication de Lippia multiflora
(verbenaceae) en Côte d’Ivoire. Agronomie Africaine 20 (1): 97-107.
Yigermal H, Nakachew K, Assefa F (2019) Effects of integrated nutrient application on phenological, vegetative growth and yield-related
parameters of maize in Ethiopia: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture 5: 1567998.
Yuvaraj A, Karmegam N, Thangaraj R (2018). Vermistabilization of paper mill sludge by an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus: Mitigation strategies for sustainable environmental management. Ecological Engineering 120 : 187-197.
Zake J, Pietsch AS, Friedel KJ, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2015). Can agroforestry
improve soil fertility and carbon storage in smallholder banana farming systems? Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 178: 237-249.
Zaremanesh H, Nasiri B, Amiri A (2017). The effect of vermicompost biological fertilizer on corn yield. Journal of Material and Environmental Science 8 (1): 154-159.