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Crop and livestock enterprise combinations among small-scale farmers were studied in southern Mali with the purpose of determining the most profitable combination of crop and livestock enterprises. Primary data was collected from four categories of farmers which are types A, B, C and D. This classification of farmers was done by research and it was based on the level of agricultural equipment (plough and cart) and number of oxen. Therefore, data was collected from 171 randomly selected farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study is based on profit maximization using a linear programming (LP) model through total gross margin of the major crops and livestock enterprises. Results showed that small-scale cotton farmers were do not efficiently utilize their current resources. If present level of resources were efficiently optimized, the results showed that farmers could increase their profit by 104.80%, 54.35%, 23.01% and 19.52% for types A, B, C and D in Southern Mali respectively. Further, the results revealed that resources such as labor, land and number of animals could be the major constraints if the resources were well optimized. The study also showed that the most profitable combination of crop and livestock enterprises is cotton / maize / rice / cattle /sheep / donkey for small-scale cotton farmers in Southern Mali.
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