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Boro rice production in Bangladesh, which almost completely depends on irrigation water, is becoming less profitable and less sustainable because of the high cost of cultivation and the inefficient use of inputs such as water, labor, fertilizer, and energy. Shifting from puddled to non-puddled boro rice after a mustard crop may help advance the boro transplanting early, reducing the tilling cost and improving the soil fertility by less disturbance of the soil. The non-puddled boro transplanting, including zero tillage or reduced tillage, has not been practiced by farmers yet. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in twelve farmers’ fields in northwestern Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of different non-puddled tillage operation and fertilizer management on boro rice production. The experiment tested three tillage systems (zero till, one pass till, and two passes till) and three level of fertilizer management (recommended N,P,K,S; reduced 50% P, and reduced 50% K) in a split-plot design. Zero-till produced the similar crop yield to the one or two pass till which was 5.9 t ha-1 and this yield was similar to the yield potentiality of the used cultivar. Fertilizer management recommended doses of N,P,K,S produced the maximum yield (6.1 t ha-1) and reduced 50% K fertilizer has the similar yield (6.0 t ha-1) to the recommended dose. The profitability was similar among all non-puddled tillage systems. The recommended N,P,K,S fertilizer, and reduce 50% K have similar net profit and the benefit-cost ratio (BCR); however, reduced 50% P had lower net profit and BCR than the recommended N,P,K,S fertilizer, and reduce 50% K.
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