Potential role of some biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide for the management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting sunflower in Egypt

Volume06-2018
Advances in Agricultural Science 06 (2018), 02: 50-58

Potential role of some biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide for the management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting sunflower in Egypt

Ahmed El-Sayed Ismail 1*

Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Center, Dokki, 12622, Giza, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis attacks a wide range of crops including sunflower, Helianthus annuus in Egypt as well as in many parts of the world. Elimination of the nematodes has received attention to minimize damage to plants. Thus, the present study aims to estimate the probable effects of three rates of some biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide on the development of R. reniformis in sunflower and growth of the plant. Three Egyptian of bio-fertilizers (BF), i.e. Nitrobien (at doses 0.034, 0.068 and 0.136), Rizobactrein (at doses 0.017, 0.034 and 0.068) and Blue-green (at doses 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8); and three Egyptian plant nutrients (PN) i.e. Citrein (at doses 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4), Kotangein (at doses 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) and Kapronite (at doses 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0) as well as the biocide Nemaless (at doses 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02) were evaluated as  a lower rate, the recommend rate and a higher rate; respectively for control of R. reniformis and improvement of sunflower cv. Giza 101 under greenhouse conditions 30 ± 5 ºC. All the evaluated compounds significantly reduced (P≤ 0.05 and/ or 0.01) the number of juveniles in soil, swollen females and egg-laying females on roots. The reduction varied greatly according to the type of experimented products and rate of application. The highest reduction in the nematode populations, swollen females and egg-laying females was attained with seed coating by Rizobactrein followed by Nitrobien as bio-fertilizers while, the least reductions were obtained by using Blue-green as alga biofertilizer followed by Nemaless as a biocide. Application of the plant nutrients, Kotangein as seed coating and Kapronite as soil amendment were effectively decreased the development of the nematode stages. Citrein as a foliar spray nutrient was the least effective. Generally, Rizobactrein and Nitrobien as biofertilizers; Kapronite and Kotangein as plant nutrients proved to be the most effective for controlling R. reniformis and gave the greatest growth of sunflower plants as compared with the rest treatments.

Keywords: Biocides, Nematode biocontrol, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Plant nutrients, Sunflower


How to Cite: AEl-Sayed Ismail, A. (2018). Potential role of some biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide for the management of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting sunflower in Egypt. Advances in Agricultural Science6(2), 50-58. 

Introduction

Over-reliance on the use of synthetic pesticides in crop protection has resulted in disturbances to the environment, pest resurgence, pest resistance to pesticides and lethal and sub-lethal effects on non-target organisms, including humans (Prakash and Rao, 1996). These side effects have raised public concern about the routine use and safety of chemical nematicides. Also, increases in the populations of plant-parasitic nematodes and a tendency to use ever greater quantities of pesticides are causing ever greater environmental problems, that is, provision of sufficient clean food whilst at the same time protecting water supplies and wild life habitats. In Egypt, plant parasitic nematodes, especially reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis are important pests and cause considerable loss to many economic crops including sunflower (Johnson and Fassuliutis, 1984; Oteifa, 1987).

Therefore, management of this nematode has received attention to reduce damage by encourage scientists to search for synthetic pesticides alternatives. (El-Gindi et al., 2005a) and (Ismail and Hasabo, 2000) found that Nemaless (a water suspension of Serratia marcescens Bizio containing 1× 109 bacterium cells / ml water, produced by the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation) reduced the different stages of Meloidogyne incognita . Also, these bacterium cells used as potential biocontrol agents against different parasitic nematodes (Mercer et al., 1992; Abd-Elgawad and Mohamed, 2006; Kassab S.A. et al., 2017). Also, use of selected marine algae as biocidal agents offers a potential approach to suppress the nematode pests of agricultural crops (Paracer et al., 1987; Ismail and Hasabo, 2000; Youssef and Eissa, 2014). The interrelationships between nematode populations, nutrient elements and plant growth have been reported (Kirkpatrick et al., 1964; Ismail and Hasabo, 2000). Using of powdered sulphur on soil of garlic field caused significant reductions in Tylenchorhynchus spp. and R. reniformis populations (Kassab and Hafez, 1990).

With respect to the relation between trace elements and nematode populations and pathoginicity studies, many reports have been done. (Vangundy and Martin, 1961) reported that copper in the leaves of sweet orange seedlings was reduced by Tylenchulus semipenetrans. (Ashoub A. A., 1978) found that eggplants provided with iron (Fe) nutrient solution harboured less number of R. reniformis than that of non-treated plants as well as, R. reniformis was less in cases of Fe or Zn deficiency but not with Mo – deficiency (Aboul-Eid et al., 1980). Also, (El-Gindi et al., 2005b) found no significant differences between nitrobien and phosphorine as biofertilizers in reducing M. incognita  population and cowpea growth responses, however, nitrobien seems to be more effective than phosphorine on the above mentioned parameters.

Thus, the objectives of the  present study aims to estimate  the probable effects of some biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide on the development of R. reniformis in sunflower, Helianthus annuus as well as growth of the plant in Egypt.

 

Materials and Methods

Two Egyptian biofertilizers i.e. Nitrobien (at doses 0.034, 0.068 and 0.136) and Rizobactrein (at doses 0.017, 0.034 and 0.068) containing the nitrogen fixing bacteria and one plant nutrient such as Kotangein (at doses 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) containing a mixture of microelements (Fe, Zn and Mn) with sulphur were used as seed coating to sunflower seeds. Other treatments included foliar application with one plant nutrient i.e. Sitrein (mixture of 6% Fe, Mn and Zn with 15% citric acid) was used at doses 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4. Blue- green algae as biofertilizer was used at doses 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8;  Kapronite (at doses 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0) was used as plant nutrient containing a mixture of elemental sulphur and substances enriched with P, K, Ca, Mg and Nemaless (at doses 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02) was applied as a biocide containing a strain of bacteria Serratia marcessens were used as soil treatment. All the previous biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide were applied at the recommended rate as well as half and double rates.

Seeds of sunflower cv. Giza 101 were sown in 20 cm diameter clay pots filled with 2 kg autoclaved soil mixture of sand and clay (1:1, v:v). After 15 days of germination, only one healthy plant was kept in each pot and six replicates were prepared from each treatment and each plant was inoculated with 1000 freshly hatched Rotylenchulus reniformis fourth stage juveniles (J4). Untreated pots inoculated with nematodes served as control. Pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in a greenhouse at 30± 5ºC. Soil treatments were applied at sowing time;  foliar spray nutrients were applied twice (at 3 weeks old plants then 3 weeks later). Seed coating treatments were made by mixing the seeds in Arab gum and the tested material for 2-5 minutes and then left to dry for 4 hours before sowing. Seventy days after nematode inoculation, sunflower plants were gently uprooted and the fourth- stage juveniles (J4) in the soil were extracted by sieving and centrifugation (Barker et al., 1986). Number of swollen females and egg-laying females were counted for the whole root system. Lengths, fresh and dry weights of both shoot and root systems were recorded. The percentages reduction or increase in the nematode population or plant growth parameters as compared to untreated plants were calculated.

 

Data analysis

In both experiments during two successive seasons 2015 and 2016, obtained data on sunflower growth components were collected. Data were also collected on number of fourth stage of juveniles (J4) in soil, each of swollen females and egg-laying females from all the treatments. All data were pooled together and means were compared statistically using  the Fisher, s Least Significant Difference (L.S.D.).

 

Results

Tables 1 and 2 showed that using of the biofertilizers (BF), the plant nutrients (PN) and the biocide at the three rates significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01 levels) reduced numbers of juveniles in soil, swollen females and egg-laying females on roots as compared to untreated plants. In the previous nematode stages, statistical differences at 0.05 and / or 0.01 levels were noted within some treatments. The reduction greatly varied according to the type of the evaluated materials. So, the highest decrease in numbers of juveniles in soil, swollen females and egg-laying females was more clearer with seed coating by Rizobactrein followed by Nitrobien biofertilizers (Table 1). However, the least decreases in the nematode stages were obtained when plants treated with Blue green algae biofertilizer followed by Nemaless biocide. With respect to the impact of the tested plant and soil nutrients (Table 2), application of Kotangein as seed coating and Kapronite as soil amendment showed highest percentage reduction;  respectively in the numbers of juveniles in soil, swollen females and egg-laying females followed by Citrein treatment.

The influence of the various rates of BF, PN and Nemaless on the growth of sunflower plants infected with R. reniformis is presented in Tables 3 and 4. All treatments with the different rates significantly increased plant growth (P ≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01 levels), with some exceptions, as compared to untreated plants. Statistical differences at 0.05 and / or 0.01 levels in all shoot and root systems growth parameters were observed within some treatments. However, insignificant variations, with some exceptions, were noted between the tested three rates of each treatment in all plant growth criteria (Tables 3 and 4). The increase in plant growth parameters varied according to the type of the evaluated materials. Therfore, the highest increase in lengths, fresh and dry weights of both shoot and root systems were obtained by using Rizobactrein followed by Nitrobien as biofertilizers (Table 3). Using of Kotangein (seed coating) and Kapronite (soil amendment) as plant nutrients showed the highest percentage increase in the plant growth parameters while;  the least increases were observed in plants treated with Citrein (Table 4). Clearly, stronger responses were obtained in shoot growth parameters compared to root growth parameters (Tables 3 and 4).

 

Discussion

The evaluated biofertilizers, plant nutrients and a biocide had a negative effect on the development of eniformis on sunflower.

Table 1. Effect of some bio-fertilizers and a biocide on the development of Rotylenchulus reniformis.* (Mean of two successive seasons, 2015 and 2016).

 

Treatment and type of application

 

 

Dose

 

No. of juveniles in soil

 

Reduction%**

 

No. of swollen females / root

 

Reduction%

No. of egg-laying females / root  

Reduction%

Nitrogenous bio-fertilizers (gm / gm of seeds)
Nitrobien

(seed coating)

0.034

0.068

0.136

2150

1900

1370

50.9

56.6

68.7

160

145

133

36.0

42.0

46.8

110

95

81

24.1

34.5

44.1

Rizobactrein

(seed coating)

0.017

0.034

0.068

1395

1100

630

68.2

74.9

85.6

110

98

78

56.0

60.8

68.8

88

75

51

39.3

48.3

64.8

Blue-green Algae (gm / pot)
Blue – green

(soil)

0.2

0.4

0.8

3900

3760

3250

11.0

14.2

25.8

233

215

210

6.8

14.0

16.0

140

131

129

3.5

9.7

11.0

Biocide (ml / pot)
Nemaless

(soil)

0.005

0.01

0.02

3050

2860

2410

30.4

34.7

45.0

212

190

177

15.2

24.0

29.2

128

110

107

11.7

24.1

26.2

Control 4380 250 145
L.S.D. 5% 410 15 17
L.S.D. 1% 620 23 31

*Data given represent the mean of six replicates.

**Percentage reduction compared to control.

This was evident by the lower numbers of juveniles in soil, lower numbers of swollen females and egg-laying females and this coincided with improvement in plant growth of the treated pots. These findings are in harmony with those of (Featonby-Smith and Van Staden, 1983) (Kassab and Hafez, 1990) (Ali and Kamal, 1998) (Abd-Elgawad and Mohamed, 2006; Kassab S.A. et al., 2017). They stated that the application of iron nutrient solution; brown alga; powdered sulphur and diluted liquid culture of the bacteria Serratia marcessens significantly suppressed several species of plant-parasitic nematodes and improved the growth of the host crops. Also, (El-Sherif et al., 1994) (Ali, 1996; Ismail and Hasabo, 2000; Abd-Elgawad and Mohamed, 2006; Kassab S.A. et al.,

Table 2. Effect of some plant and soil nutrients on the development of Rotylenchulus reniformis.* (Mean of two successive seasons, 2015 and 2016).

 

Treatment and type of application

 

 

Dose

 

No. of juveniles in soil

 

Reduction%**

 

No. of swollen females / root

 

Reduction%

No. of egg-laying females / root  

Reduction%

Foliar spray nutrients (ml / plant)
 

Citrein

 

0.1

0.2

0.4

3430

2950

2710

21.7

32.7

38.1

215

195

183

14.0

22.0

26.8

136

125

110

6.2

13.8

24.1

Seed coating (gm / gm of seeds)
 

Kotangein

0.01

0.02

0.03

1210

950

910

72.4

78.3

79.2

153

110

98

38.8

56.0

60.8

110

93

78

24.1

35.9

46.2

Soil amendment (gm / pot)
 

Kapronite

1.0

2.0

4.0

2100

1830

1100

52.1

58.2

74.9

198

173

161

20.8

30.8

35.6

122

107

98

15.9

26.2

32.4

Control 4380 250 145
L.S.D. 5% 1010 12 14
L.S.D. 1% 1400 19 25

*Data given represent the mean of six replicates.

**Percentage reduction compared to control.

 

2017) reported that liquid cultures of Serratia sp. (the major component of the biocide Nemaless) or its filtrates inhibited egg hatching and juvenile survival of  different plant parasitic nematodes. The role of these bacteria may be attributed to the accumulation of toxic metabolites of these bioagents in soil. These metabolites may have a direct lethal effect on nematodes (Dicklow et al., 1993), or have some  physiological and / or behavioral effects such as disorder of neuromuscular junctions or through suppression of hatching, movement, feeding and invasion to host tissue (Mishra et al., 1987; Kluepfel et al., 1993). For addition, ammonia produced by modifying bacteria during natural decomposition of nitrogenous products has been often implicated in the control of plant parasitic nematodes (Rodriguez-Kabana, 1986). Fatty acids, volatile compounds, hydrogen sulfide, enzymes, hormones, alcohol and phenolic compounds are among the bacterial metabolic products implicated in the management of plant parasitic nematodes (Mishra et al., 1987; Ismail and Hasabo, 2000; Abd-Elgawad and Mohamed, 2006; Kassab S.A. et al., 2017). These products may be toxic to nematodes directly or it may indirectly suppress nematode population by modifying the rhizosphere environment.

Table 3. Effect of some bio-fertilizers and a biocide on the growth of sunflower infected with R. reniformis.* (Mean of two successive seasons, 2015 and 2016).

 

Treatment and type of application

 

 

Dose

Shoot growth Root growth
Fresh weight (g) Increase % ** Dry weight (g) Increase % Length (cm) Increase % Fresh  weight

(g)

Increase % Dry weight (g) Increase % Length (cm) Increase %
Nitrogenous bio-fertilizers (gm / gm of seeds)
Nitrobien

(seed coating)

0.034

0.068

0.136

7.5

9.0

12.0

36.4

63.6

118.2

1.8

2.3

3.1

100

156

244

45.1

47.3

48.9

17.8

23.5

27.7

7.6

8.3

9.7

182

207

259

2.0

2.4

2.9

186

243

314

22.6

24.3

26.2

28.4

38.1

48.9

Rizobactrein

(seed coating)

0.017

0.034

0.068

12.0

13.9

14.9

118.2

152.7

170.9

2.2

2.7

3.9

144

200

333

46.5

49.8

51.3

21.4

30.0

33.9

8.1

9.3

11

200

244

311

2.1

2.6

3.1

200

271

343

25.3

26.1

28.3

43.8

48.3

60.8

Blue-green Algae (gm / pot)
Blue – green

(soil)

0.2

0.4

0.8

6.0

7.9

9.3

9.1

43.6

69.1

1.5

1.9

2.4

66.7

111

167

43.6

45.9

48.4

13.8

19.8

26.4

6.5

7.1

8.2

141

163

204

1.5

1.9

2.1

114

171

200

17.8

20.1

21.7

1.1

14.2

23.3

Biocide (ml / pot)
Nemaless

(soil)

0.005

0.01

0.02

6.5

8.6

9.9

18.2

56.4

80.1

1.6

2.1

2.8

77.8

133

211

44.8

46.7

49.1

17.0

21.9

28.2

7.1

7.9

8.8

163

193

226

1.9

2.2

2.6

171

214

271

19.7

21.4

23.5

11.9

21.6

33.5

Control 5.5 0.9 38.3 2.7 0.7 17.6
L.S.D. 5% 3.6 0.7 6.3 4.4 0.4 4.6
L.S.D. 1% 5.3 1.8 8.6 6.1 0.6 6.2

*Data given represent the mean of six replicates.

**Percentage increase compared to control.

 

The increase in plant growth as compared to the untreated control could be attributed to decreasing of the nematode population and to the addition of organic or inorganic compounds contained in the bacterial metabolites. Moreover, most of these products improved the physical and chemical properties of soil and provides the soil with components that help solubilization and absorption of many macro and micro elements by plants which encourage plant growth. The positive benefits from seed coating with Kotangein which contained a mixture of microelements (Fe, Zn and Mn) with sulphur  have been attributed increased root uptake capacity because of enhanced root development and hair formation in response to secretion of plant

 

Table 4. Effect of some plant and soil nutrients on the growth of sunflower infected with R. reniformis.* (Mean of two successive seasons, 2015 and 2016).

 

Treatment and type of application

 

 

Dose

Shoot growth Root growth
Fresh weight (g) Increase %  ** Dry weight (g) Increase % Length (cm) Increase % Fresh  weight

(g)

Increase % Dry weight (g) Increase % Length (cm) Increase %
Foliar spray nutrients (ml / plant)
 

Citrein

 

0.1

0.2

0.4

9.1

10.1

10.6

65.5

83.6

92.7

2.4

3.6

3.7

167

300

311

43.9

44.3

45.6

15

16

19

3.6

4.1

4.9

33

52

82

1.3

1.4

1.8

86

100

157

22.8

23.3

24.6

29.6

32.4

39.8

Seed coating (gm / gm of seeds)
Kotangein 0.01

0.02

0.03

10.8

11.3

11.9

96.3

106

116

3.1

3.9

4.0

244

333

344

47.6

48.1

50.3

24

26

31

4.9

5.3

5.9

82

96

119

1.5

1.8

2.1

114

157

200

24.7

25.2

25.9

40.3

43.2

47.2

Soil amendment (gm / pot)
Kapronite 1.0

2.0

4.0

9.9

10.2

10.9

80.0

85.5

98.2

2.8

3.7

3.9

211

311

333

45.1

46.7

48.4

18

22

26

4.1

5.1

5.3

52

89

96

1.2

1.7

1.8

71

143

157

23.6

24.1

25.3

34.1

36.9

43.8

Control 5.5 0.9 38.3 2.7 0.7 17.6
L.S.D. 5% 2.9 0.6 6.3 0.9 0.4 3.2
L.S.D. 1% 4.1 1.7 8.2 1.1 0.6 4.6

*Data given represent the mean of six replicates.

**Percentage increase compared to control.

 

growth hormones (Owens and Novotny, 1960; Ismail and Hasabo, 2000).

 

Conclusion

Overall, it could be concluded that the net effect of these substances is therefore, combating R. reniformis populations and improving sunflower growth through a non-toxic, biological control system which is clearly evident in this study. More studies are, however, in progress to elucidate the action of afore-mention products on other plant-parasitic nematodes attacking various economic crops.

 

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