Biocontrol of Sassetia coffeae by augmentation, releasing and evaluation of Scutellista caerulea in Egypt

Volume05-2017
Advances in Agricultural Science 05 (2017), 01: 01-14

Biocontrol of Sassetia coffeae by augmentation, releasing and evaluation of Scutellista caerulea in Egypt

Shaaban Abd-Rabou
Plant protection Research Institute, 7 Nadi El-Seid, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological control potential of Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe)) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) against the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on olive (Olea europaea L.) by mass rearing and augmentative releases of this natural enemy during a long-term field study in Egypt. A study was conducted to evaluate biocontrol potential of this pest by augmentation with a parasitoid, S. caerulea. This species was mass reared and monthly releases were made in fields of olive during each of 11 consecutive years (2001-2011). About 339045 and 337650 S. caerulea were released in fields in El-Arish and Northern Coast locations in Egypt on olive which was naturally infested by S. coffeae. Populations of the natural enemy and parasitism were much higher in field plots where releases were made as compared with where no releases were made. The maximum rate of parasitism reached 87.5% (84.5% by S. caerulea) in the field treatment where releases were made, while parasitism peaked at 46.2 % where no releases were made. The population of S. caerulea was significantly correlated with the population the whitefly during the field season. Additional parasitism was by natural infestations by Rates of parasitism of by Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), Microterys flavus (Howard) in El-Arish and Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) and M. lounsburyi (Howard) in Northern Coast (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). These observations enhance the understanding of the usefulness of this natural enemy after augmentation in the field.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Parasitic hymenoptera, Scutellista caerulea, soft scale insects

 


Introduction

Recently, the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) has become a serious and drastic pest of olive trees in Egypt. It is like any soft scales excrete honeydew, a sweet, sticky liquid produced by insects that ingest large quantities of plant sap. Sooty mould is an unsightly fungus that is often associated with scale infestation. The mould grows on the excretions (honey dew) produced by the scale insects as they feed on the tree. The fungus does not cause any direct damage to the trees but can cause a significant reduction in photosynthesis by blocking sunlight from the leaves. Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe) ) ( Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae) is a well known cosmopolitan parasitoid of soft scales, which larvae usually develop as an egg-predator feeding on the eggs beneath the scale body Saad et al. (1977) , Jadhav & Ajri (1981,1984) ,Ibrahim (1984, 1988) , Ehler (1989), Ragab (1995), Abd-Rabou (2011). It is an egg parasitoid of many coccids, including the hemispherical scale, S. coffeae Ibrahim (1984) , Abd-Rabou (2011) . The parasitoid, S. caerulea has been used widely in the biological control of olive scales  El-Minshaway et al. (1978), Luck (1981). It is the most important enemy attacking S. coffeae in Egypt El-Minshawy & Saad (1977), Abd-Raou (2006). Many Egyptian workers recorded this parasitoid associated with different soft scale species in different locations, e.g. Priesner and Hosny (1940), El-Minshawy & Saad (1977),  Abou-Elkair (1999), Abd-Rabou (2001a,b,c, 2004, 2006) , Abd-Rabou & Hafez (2001). This parasitoid was recorded for the first time in Egypt by Priesner & Hosny (1940) associated with Waxiella mimosae (Signoret) on Acacia nilotica, Albizzia lebbek, Ficus carica, also Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) on Ficus sycamorus and S. coffeae on olive in Lower and Upper Egypt. Abou-Elkair (1999), Abd-Rabou (2001b, c) recorded this parasitoid associated with S. coffeae, Saissetia oleae (Olivier) and Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, Abou-Elkair (1999) recorded S.caruleae associated with different species of soft scale insects in Alexandria. Also, S.caruleae was recorded attacking C. floridensis infested citrus trees in Beheira governorate Abd-Rabou (2001c). This parasitoid was reared from Kilifia acuminata (Signoret) (Abd-Rabou &Hafez (2001). Abd-Rabou (2004) recorded this parasitoid in olive groves infested with S. oleae. Later Abd-Rabou (2006) recorded this parasitoid associated with K.acuminata, C.floridensis, P. nigra, S. coffeae and S. oleae. Abd-Rabou 2011 recorded this parasitoid associated with 8 species of soft scale insects in 9 governorates in Egypt.

Its efficiency in controlling soft scale insects have been attracted many workers of the world, on Ceroplastes rusci L. in Jordan  Awamleh et al. (2009), Ceroplastes sinensis (Del Guercio) in Greece Stathas et al.( 2003),  S. coffeae in Egypt El-Minshawy & Saad (1977) , Abd-Rabou (2006),  S. oleae in Greece , Spain , Turkey, USA Canard & Laudeho (1977), Tena et al. (2008) , Lampson &Morse (1992),Tuncyürek & Öncüer (1974), respectively.

The aim of this work is to study the biological control of S. coffeae infested olive trees in different locations in Egypt by augmentation, releasing and evaluation of the parasitoid, S. caerulea  .

Materials and Methods

Potato sprouts was used to mass rear S. caerulea on S.coffeae (According to the method of Blumberg & Swirski (1977). Approximately 676,695 adults of this parasitoid were released (Table 1 & 2) in El-Arish and Northern Coast regions in Egypt in a fields of olive which were naturally infested with S.coffeae. Releases were made during each of 11 consecutive years (2001-2011). From 30, 2500 to 31,170 parasitoids were released each year. Within a given year, similar numbers of parasitoids were released each month. The parasitoids were released as adults from containers (vials or cups) which were attached to olive trees. One container of 10-12 parasitoids was released per tree by allowing parasitoids to fly or walk from the containers. Half of the field was used as a control and no release was made in this field plot. Each plot was approximately 0.21 hectares

Evaluations of released parasitoid individuals were assessed through either rearing or dissection of recovered samples. Cardboard containers, 0.5-liter with ventilated tops, were utilized to hold samples for two weeks at 25-29˚C. This was achieved by holding 500 olive leaves in each container. All materials found at the bottom of the rearing containers were examined for dead adult S.coffeae and associated parasitoids. The parasitoids were identified by comparison with voucher specimens. Leaf samples were collected at the beginning of every month from January to December in 2001-2011. The samples were taken after each monthly release. For each month of sampling, 100 trees were sampled in the parasitoid release plot and 50 trees were sampled in the control plot.

Rates of parasitism of by Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) and Microterys flavus (Howard) in El-Arish and Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) and M. lounsburyi (Howard) in Northern Coast in these samples were recorded and reported to provide comparisons with release of S. caerulea. Percent parasitism was defined as: Percent parasitism = [number of prepupae, pupae, and adult parasitoids / (number of S.coffeae, excluding eggs and first nymphal instars + number of prepupae, pupae, and adult parasitoids)] x 100. Some time was expected to elapse before the maximal level of impact from these parasitoids could be observed on the target pest.

       S.coffeae counts for the control plots were combined, and S.coffeae counts for the insect release plots were combined. The data on percentage of parasitism was analyzed by simple correlation, regression and ANOVA and the means were compared by L.S.D. test at 0.01 levels using the Statistical Analysis System SAS Institute (1989).

Results

The release of approximately 676,695 adult S. caerulea in the fields on olive resulted in elevated parasitism by this species for each year from 2001 to 2011 as compared with the control field’s plots wherein no releases were made (Figures 1-4). The maximum rate of parasitism by S. caerulea (89.6 and 84.6%) was attained in October 2011 in the release plot in El-Arish and Northern Coast, respectively. The other species of parasitoid of S.coffeae that were collected in the samples were C. scutellaris and M. flavus in El-Arish and M. helvolus and M. lounsburyi in Northern Coast. Parasitism gradually increased in June and peaked during October of each year, but was also high in September and November of each year. The peak in parasitism was due to higher populations of S. caerulea in the field.

Table 1: Total numbers of the adult parasitoid, Scutellista caerulea released in different fields of olive in El-Arish region in Egypt during each year from 2001 to 2011

Year Number of released Scutellista caerulea individuals by Sassetia coffeae
Months
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
2001 2650 2555 2530 2590 2540 2500 2515 2580 2600 2665 2550 2525 30800
2002 2555 2510 2515 2730 2650 2510 2525 2680 2620 2610 2530 2550 30985
2003 2500 2520 2525 2690 2555 2620 2520 2510 2510 2565 2610 2610 30735
2004 2660 2550 2510 2515 2530 2610 2530 2720 2540 2615 2600 2620 31000
2005 2510 2610 2610 2580 2520 2580 2555 2510 2510 2540 2610 2550 30685
2006 2550 2520 2540 2690 2530 2520 2535 2520 2540 2525 2620 2575 30665
2007 2525 2515 2510 2710 2520 2525 2625 2530 2550 2545 2610 2640 30805
2008 2550 2640 2725 2555 2510 2610 2540 2625 2550 2615 2640 2610 31170
2009 2515 2510 2545 2575 2530 2655 2630 2545 2510 2530 2555 2540 30640
2010 2610 2500 2510 2530 2510 2510 2540 2560 2620 2545 2540 2560 30535
2011 2550 2640 2555 2560 2610 2700 2620 2530 2630 2510 2580 2540 31025

 

Table 2: Total numbers of the adult parasitoid, Scutellista caerulea released in different fields of olive in Northern Coast region in Egypt during each year from 2001 to 2011

Year Number of released Scutellista caerulea individuals by Sassetia coffeae
Months
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
2001 2555 2520 2550 2555 2530 2580 2510 2520 2630 2510 2530 2550 30540
2002 2510 2530 2545 2540 2550 2560 2500 2600 2620 2510 2580 2590 30635
2003 2520 2630 2550 2505 2530 2625 2515 2610 2510 2505 2540 2630 30670
2004 2540 2540 2560 2610 2555 2530 2640 2600 2540 2635 2650 2645 31045
2005 2630 2630 2530 2530 2530 2510 2525 2510 2540 2500 2510 2530 30475
2006 2620 2540 2580 2540 2555 2500 2630 2520 2500 2500 2610 2555 30650
2007 2540 2550 2540 2630 2620 2510 2550 2530 2560 2520 2640 2530 30720
2008 2510 2550 2630 2650 2580 2640 2550 2625 2540 2525 2535 2530 30865
2009 2550 2550 2550 2550 2560 2600 2500 2545 2550 2540 2515 2510 30520
2010 2530 2580 2570 2540 2550 2530 2600 2560 2520 2530 2510 2500 30250
2011 2610 2540 2615 2530 2555 2540 2580 2720 2560 2680 2530 2550 31010

 

Table 3: Simple correlation and regression coefficient of three parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Coccophagus scutellaris and Microterys flavus) on the population of Sassetia coffeae on olive trees in El-Arish Governorate during 2001-2011.

Season Factor Simple correlation and regression
“r” “b’
Release No release Release No release
2001 Scutellista caerulea 0.87*** 0.89*** 0.76** 0.80***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.19** 0.94*** 0.62* 0.93***
Microterys flavus 0.18** 0.80** 0.75** 0.77**
2002 Scutellista caerulea 0.86*** 0.90*** 0.74** 0.82***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.19** 0.95*** 0.65** 0.93***
Microterys flavus 0.79** 0.80** 0.69** 0.81***
2003 Scutellista caerulea 0.81** 0.77** 0.65** 0.70**
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.80** 0.97*** 0.65** 0.97***
Microterys flavus 0.73** 0.90*** 0.53* 0.86***
2004 Scutellista caerulea 0.87*** 0.90*** 0.90*** 0.81***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.74** 0.93*** 0.56* 0.88***
Microterys flavus 0.71** 0.81** 0.50* 0.79***
2005 Scutellista caerulea 0.89*** 0.84*** 0.93*** 0.72**
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.71** 0.91*** 0.51* 0.89***
Microterys flavus 0.72** 0.65* 0.52* 0.64**
2006 Scutellista caerulea 0.89*** 0.91*** 0.97*** 0.83***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.88*** 0.0 0.86***
Microterys flavus 0.74** 0.66* 0.57* 0.48ns
2007 Scutellista caerulea 0.84** 0.92*** 0.85*** 0.85***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.83*** 0.0 0.73**
Microterys flavus 0.66* 0.89*** 0.44ns 0.91***
2008 Scutellista caerulea 0.74** 0.89*** 0.91*** 0.79***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.92*** 0.0 0.95***
Microterys flavus 0.40ns 0.82*** 0.19ns 0.79***
2009 Scutellista caerulea 0.70* 0.90*** 0.52* 0.81***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.90*** 0.0 0.87***
Microterys flavus 0.04ns 0.87*** 0.13ns 0.80***
2010 Scutellista caerulea 0.82*** 0.89*** 0.86*** 0.81***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.69* 0.0 0.59*
Microterys flavus 0.26ns 0.81** 0.41ns 0.75**
2011 Scutellista caerulea 0.40ns 0.89*** 0.19ns 0.80***
Coccophagus scutellaris 0.0 0.94*** 0.0 0.93***
Microterys flavus 0.22ns 0.84*** 0.10ns 0.80***

 

Table 4: Simple correlation and regression coefficient of three parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus helvolus and Metaphycus lounsburyi) on the population of Sassetia coffeae on olive trees in Northern Coast Governorate during 2001-2011.

Season Factor Simple correlation and regression
“r” “b’
Release No release Release No release
2001 Scutellista caerulea 0.85*** 0.93*** 0.72** 0.91***
Metaphycus helvolus 0.82*** 0.85*** 0.68** 0.74**
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.77** 0.82** 0.66** 0.76**
2002 Scutellista caerulea 0.86*** 0.93*** 0.74** 0.90***
Metaphycus helvolus 0.78** 0.91*** 0.61* 0.87***
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.82** 0.85*** 0.74** 0.78**
2003 Scutellista caerulea 0.83*** 0.89*** 0.69** 0.81***
Metaphycus helvolus 0.77** 0.78** 0.61* 0.61*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.59* 0.68* 0.35ns 0.85*
2004 Scutellista caerulea 0.89*** 0.85*** 0.94*** 0.73**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.87*** 0.75** 0.78*** 0.60*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.40ns 0.77** 0.30ns 0.61*
2005 Scutellista caerulea 0.90*** 0.83*** 0.91*** 0.76**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.66* 0.78** 0.94*** 0.62*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.69* 0.74** 0.48ns 0.56*
2006 Scutellista caerulea 0.87*** 0.80** 0.96*** 0.69**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.52ns 0.59* 0.93*** 0.45ns
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.69* 0.66* 0.52* 0.48*
2007 Scutellista caerulea 0.89*** 0.78** 0.92*** 0.71**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.58* 0.77** 0.90*** 0.60*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.59* 0.73** 0.35ns 0.76**
2008 Scutellista caerulea 0.76** 0.73** 0.67** 0.62*
Metaphycus helvolus 0.32ns 0.62* 0.86*** 0.57*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.54ns 0.61* 0.35ns 0.59*
2009 Scutellista caerulea 0.71** 0.75** 0.51* 0.69**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.14ns 0.70* 0.47ns 0.62*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.48ns 0.63* 0.39ns 0.57*
2010 Scutellista caerulea 0.55ns 0.70* 0.30ns 0.76**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.07ns 0.63* 0.12ns 0.61*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.34ns 0.56ns 0.25ns 0.47ns
2011 Scutellista caerulea 0.44ns 0.66* 0.23ns 0.73**
Metaphycus helvolus 0.08ns 0.67* 0.019ns 0.63*
Metaphycus lounsburyi 0.32ns 0.058ns 0.24ns 0.14ns

*Slight difference      **Significant difference ***Highly significant difference

Figure 1: Mean number of Sassetia coffeae and its parasitoids ((Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus flavus, Coccophagus scutellaris) on olive trees in El-Arish Governorate during 2001-2005.


Figure 2: Mean number of Sassetia coffeae and its parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus flavus, Coccophagus scutellaris) on olive trees in El-Arish Governorate during 2006-20011.


Figure 3: Mean number of Sassetia coffeae and its parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus helvolus and Metaphycus lounsburyi) on olive trees in Northern Coast Governorate during 2001-2005.


Figure 4: Mean number of Sassetia coffeaeand its parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus helvolus and Metaphycus lounsburyi) on olive trees in Northern Coast Governorate during 2006-2011.

Generally, the simple correlation coefficient (in release plots) between the parasitoid, S. caerulea and the others C. scutellaris (Dalman) and Microterys flavus (Howard) in El-Arish and Metaphycus helvolus (Compered) and M. lounsburyl (Howard) in Northern Coast on the number of S.coffeae on olive plants in El-Arish and Northern Coast regions during 2001-2011 years was significantly and highly significant positive, where “r” ranged between 0.71&0.90 and 0.89 &0.70 in Northern Coast and El-Arish. In addition, the partial regression (in release plots) between the parasitoid, S. caerulea and the others C. scutellaris (Dalman) and Microterys flavus (Howard) in El-Arish and Metaphycus helvolus (Compered) and M. lounsburyl (Howard) in Northern Coast on the number of S.coffeae on olive plants in El-Arish and Northern Coast regions during 2001-2001 years was significant, where “b” ranged between 0.51 &0.96 and 0.52 &0.97 (Table 3,4). In the field plot where no releases were made, the maximum rate of parasitism for a given year ranged from 8.5 to 19.8% during the 11 year period (Figures 1-4). Nevertheless, a similar trend was observed. The simple correlation coefficient (in no release plots) between the natural parasitoids on the number of S.coffeae on olive plants in El-Arish and Northern Coast regions during 2001-2011 years was significantly and highly significant positive, where “r” ranged between 0.66 &0.93 and 0.77 & 0.92. In addition, the partial regression (in no release plots) between the parasitoids on the number of the S.coffeae on olive plants was significant, where “b” ranged between 0.62 &0.91 and 0.70 & 0.85 (Table 3,4).

Peak parasitism was less than 50% over each of the first 7 years, while it peaked to over 50% in each of the last 4 years where S. caerulea was released (Figures 1-4). Overall seasonal populations of S.coffeae (including parasitized and non-parasitized individuals) were higher in the earlier years followed with a decrease over the later years of the study (Figures 5,6). For example, the populations during the last two years were very low the numbers observed during the previous years. This trend occurred for both the control plots and the insect release plots. Statistical analysis from 2001 until 2011 years show highly significant differences between the number of the S.coffeae in release plots after releasing with (S. caerulea) (F = 55.94, 2751.52, L.S.D. 558.61, 1.89), also show highly significant differences between the number of S.coffeae in no release plots with natural parasitoids (F = 591.84,1396.79, L.S.D. 16.01,8.05) (Table 3,4).

   

Table 5: ANOVA testes of three parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Coccophagus scutellaris and Microterys flavus) on the population of Sassetia coffeae on olive trees in Al-Arish Governorate during 2001-2011.

 

Season ANOVA
F LSD
Release No release Release No release
2001-2011 2751.52 1396.79 1.89 8.05

 

  Table 6: ANOVA testes of three parasitoids (Scutellista caerulea, Metaphycus helvolus and Metaphycus lounsburyi) on the population of Sassetia coffeae on olive trees in Northern Coast Governorate during 2001-2011.

 

Season ANOVA
F LSD
Release No release Release No release
2001-2011 55.94 591.84 558.61 16.02

 

Discussion

During the present work, in the field plot where no releases were made, the maximum rate of parasitism for a given year ranged from 7.2 to 44.7% and 0.5 to 46.2% El-Arish and Northern Coast, respectively during the 11 year period in El. These findings confirmed the incidence of this parasitoid in the existence locations in Egypt.  El-Minshawy & Saad (1977) mentioned that S. caerulea, was the most important enemy attacking S. coffeae and recorded in 33.9, 42.0 and 30.5 during its peaks during the periods under investigation in Alexandria. Awamleh et al. (2009) stated that S. caerulea was the most abundant parasitoid on some soft scale insects including, S. coffeae in Jordan. The parasitoid, S. caerulea has been used widely in the biological control of S. coffeae Ibrahim (1984). It is an important natural enemy of S. coffeae and several other soft scales. It introduced into Australia against S. oleae, is important natural enemies of S. coffeae Waterhouse & Sands (2001). In the other hand , it was reported as an imported parasitoid of different soft scale insects in different parts of the world, on S. oleae in Greece Orphanides (1988), on Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Japan and Leningrad Murakami (1997), Rzaeva &Shachramov (1989), respectively, on Ceroplastes japonicus Green and C. sinensis in USSR Bassova  (1984), on S. oleae, S.coffeae, Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Ceroplastes rubens Maskell , C. floridensis, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, Ceroplastes cerifera (Fabricius), C. sinensis in Australia Waterhouse & Sands (2001).

 

Acknowledgements

This publication is sponsored by the Plant Protection Research Institute, Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, and Giza, Egypt.

 

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